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SAP ABAP Keywords

Last Updated : 28 Nov, 2023
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The core of many global enterprises, SAP ABAP stands for Advanced Business Application Programming. It is the heart and soul of SAP systems. It gives users the ability to expand and modify SAP apps to satisfy particular business needs. The fundamental building blocks of SAP ABAP are its keywords, which are used to create programs that are reliable and effective. We will delve into the world of SAP ABAP keywords in this article, examining their different forms and functions in the creation of SAP applications.


SAP ABAP Keywords

Keyword in SAP ABAP

In SAP ABAP, a keyword is a predefined, reserved term that carries out specific actions or has a particular meaning within the language. These keywords are used to instruct the SAP system on how to execute tasks, manipulate data, and control program flow. Understanding and using these keywords effectively is essential for ABAP developers to create powerful and efficient applications. SAP ABAP is not a case-sensitive language.

Keyword Types in SAP ABAP

SAP ABAP keywords can be categorized into several types based on their functionality and purpose within the code. Let’s look at the categories:

Declarative Keywords

Declarative keywords are mostly used to specify data types, variables, and constants that make up the program’s structure. By allowing programmers to specify the elements of their programs, they set up the remaining code.

Examples of declarative keywords:

DATA for declaring variables
TYPES for defining custom data types
CONSTANTS for defining constants.

Modularization Keywords

Modularization keywords are crucial for structuring the program into smaller, reusable components. These keywords aid in the creation of methods, functions, and subroutines that the program’s various sections can call.

Examples of Modularization keywords :

 FORM.... ENDFORM  for creating subroutines, 
FUNCTION..........ENDFUNCTION for defining reusable functions,
METHOD for encapsulating code within objects,
MODULE.........ENDMODULE for module declarations.

Event Keywords

Event keywords are used for defining event blocks, it does not contain any termination.


Control Keywords

Control keywords are used to manage the flow of the program. They enable developers to make decisions, create loops, and handle exceptions, ensuring that the program executes as intended.

Examples of control keywords :

 IF for conditional branching, 
LOOP for creating loops, and
TRY and CATCH for handling exceptions.

CALL Keyword

The CALL keyword is used to call other ABAP programs or functions within the current program. It allows for the execution of external code units, facilitating modularization and code reuse.

Example of CALL keyword:


Operational Keywords

Operational keywords are responsible for performing various operations, such as mathematical calculations, string manipulation, and data transformation. They are essential for data processing and manipulation within the program.

Example of operational keywords :

 ADD and SUBTRACT for arithmetic operations, 
CONCATENATE for string concatenation,and
MOVE for data assignment.

Database Keywords

Database keywords are crucial when interacting with the underlying database. They allow developers to fetch, modify, or insert data in database tables. These keywords bridge the gap between the application and the data stored in the SAP system.

Examples of database keywords:

SELECT for querying data,
UPDATE for modifying records,
INSERT for adding new data.

FAQs on SAP ABAP Keywords:

Q1. How are SAP ABAP keywords different from regular programming keywords?

SAP ABAP keywords are specific to the SAP environment and are designed to interact with SAP systems and databases. They may have unique functionality that’s not found in other programming languages.

Q2. Can you provide examples of declarative keywords in SAP ABAP?

Declarative keywords in SAP ABAP include DATA for declaring variables, TYPES for defining data types, and CONSTANTS for setting constant values. These keywords help define the structure and data elements within a program.

Q3. What is the role of control keywords in SAP ABAP?

Control keywords in SAP ABAP are used to manage program flow. They include IF for conditional branching, LOOP for creating loops, and TRY and CATCH for handling exceptions.

Q4. How do operational keywords contribute to SAP ABAP programming?

Operational keywords in SAP ABAP are used for performing operations on data, such as arithmetic calculations, string manipulation, and data transformations. Examples include ADD, SUBTRACT, and CONCATENATE.

Q5. What are modularization keywords, and why are they important in SAP ABAP development?

Modularization keywords are used to structure code into reusable components like functions, subroutines, and methods. They enhance code modularity, maintainability, and reusability, which are crucial aspects of SAP ABAP development.

Q6. What Keyword can be used to create structure in SAP ABAP?

Data Keyword can be used to create structure in SAP ABAP. Data Keyword is a declarative statement,used to declare the data objects.

Q7. What is the super keyword in SAP ABAP?

Super keyword is used to call the methods of parent class into child class.

Some Related post of SAP ABAP:


In summary, SAP ABAP keywords serve as the foundation for creating SAP applications. ABAP developers need to understand the various types of keywords and know when and how to use them. By becoming specialists in these terms, developers may produce solutions that are strong, effective, and customized to match the unique needs of their companies. To create dependable SAP applications, each keyword—declarative, modularization, control, operational, or database—is necessary. Explore the world of SAP ABAP keywords to see how much more can be done with SAP development.

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