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Pwc Interview Questions and Answers for Technical Profiles

Last Updated : 12 Mar, 2024
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PwC is a large-scale company that helps people with various professional services. They have over 295,000 employees in 157 countries. PwC offers different technical jobs in fields like software development, data analysis, and managing computer systems.

When you have a technical job interview at PwC, it can be tough, but if you prepare well, you can do better. This article has a list of common questions they might ask you during the interview and provides answers. The questions cover topics like Object-Oriented Programming, Java, C++, and Database Management Systems. Reading this article will help you know what to expect in the interview and get ready to answer their questions.

Here in this article, we listed a few popular questions and answers that have been asked in the Pwc for Technical Profiles.

To know more about Pwc Recruitment Process please go through this attached link.

1. What is a static Keyword in Java
The static keyword in Java is mainly used for memory management. The static keyword in Java is used to share the same variable or method of a given class.

2. Difference Between JDK and JRE in Java

KEY JDK JRE
DEFINITION JDK(Java Development Kit) is used to develop Java applications. JDK also contains numerous development tools like compilers, debuggers, etc. JRE(Java Runtime Environment) is the implementation of JVM(Java Virtual Machine) and it is specially designed to execute Java programs.
FUNCTIONALITY It is mainly used for the execution of code and its main functionality is development. It is mainly used for creating an environment for code execution.
DEPENDENCY OF PLATFORM It is platform-dependent. It is also platform-dependent like JDK.
TYPE OF TOOLS Since JDK is responsible for development purposes, it contains tools that are required for development and debugging purposes. On the other hand, JRE is not responsible for development purposes so it doesn’t contain such tools as the compiler, debugger, etc. Instead, it contains class libraries and supporting files required for the purpose of execution of the program.
IMPLEMENTATION OF JDK AND JRE JDK = JRE + other development tools. JRE = JVM + other class libraries.

3. Static vs  Dynamic Binding in Java

Static Binding Dynamic Binding
It takes place at compile time for which is referred to as early binding It takes place at runtime so do it is referred to as late binding.  
It uses overloading more precisely operator overloading method It uses overriding methods.
It takes place using normal functions  It takes place using virtual functions  
Static or const or private functions use real objects in static binding Real objects use dynamic binding.

4. Method Overloading in Java
In Java, Method Overloading allows different methods to have the same name, but different signatures where the signature can differ by the number of input parameters type of input parameters, or a mixture of both.

5. Super Keyword in Java
The super keyword in Java is a reference variable that is used to refer to parent class objects. An understanding of Inheritance and Polymorphism is needed in order to understand the Java super keyword. 

6. Interfaces in Java
An Interface in Java programming language is defined as an abstract type used to specify the behavior of a class. An interface in Java is a blueprint of a behavior.

7. Public vs Private Access Modifiers in Java

Public Access Modifier Private Access Modifier
This modifier is applicable for both top-level classes and interfaces. This modifier is not applicable for both top-level classes and interfaces.
Public members can be accessed from the child class of the same package. Private members cannot be accessed from the child class of the same package.
Public member can be accessed from non-child class of same package. Private members cannot be accessed from non-child class of same package.
Public members can be accessed from child class of outside package. Private members cannot be accessed from child class of outside package.
Public members can be accessed from non-child class of outside package. Private members cannot be accessed from non-child class of outside package.
Public modifier is the most accessible modifier. Private modifier is the most restricted modifier.

8. Collections in Java
Any group of individual objects which are represented as a single unit is known as a collection of objects. In Java, a separate framework named the “Collection Framework” has been defined in JDK 1.2 which holds all the collection classes and interface in it. 

9. Java Constructors
A constructor in Java is a special method that is used to initialize objects. The constructor is called when an object of a class is created.

Types of Constructors in Java

  • Default Constructor
  • Parameterized Constructor
  • Copy Constructor

10. Differences between HashMap and HashTable in Java

S. No. Hashmap Hashtable
1. No method is synchronized. Every method is synchronized.
2. Multiple threads can operate simultaneously and hence hashmap’s object is not thread-safe. At a time only one thread is allowed to operate the Hashtable’s object. Hence it is thread-safe.
3. Threads are not required to wait and hence relative performance is high. It increases the waiting time of the thread and hence performance is low.
4. Null is allowed for both key and value. Null is not allowed for both key and value. Otherwise, we will get a null pointer exception.
5. It is introduced in the 1.2 version. It is introduced in the 1.0 version.
6.  It is non-legacy. It is a legacy.

11. Data model 
A Data Model in a Database Management System (DBMS)  is the concept of tools that are developed to summarize the description of the database

12. Database Normalization
Normalization is the process of minimizing redundancy from a relation or set of relations.

13. SQL Join
SQL Join statement is used to combine data or rows from two or more tables based on a common field between them.

14. What are super, primary, candidate, and foreign keys? 

  • Super key is a set of attributes of a relation schema upon which all attributes of the schema are functionally dependent. No two rows can have the same value of super key attributes. 
  • Candidate key is a minimal superkey, i.e., no proper subset of Candidate key attributes can be a superkey. 
  • Primary Key is one of the candidate keys. One of the candidate keys is selected as the most important and becomes the primary key. There cannot be more than one primary key in a table..
  • Foreign key is a field (or collection of fields) in one table that uniquely identifies a row of another table. 

15. What are the differences between DDL, DML, and DCL in SQL? 

  • DDL stands for Data Definition Language. SQL queries like CREATE, ALTER, DROP, TRUNCATE, and RENAME come under this. 
  • DML stands for Data Manipulation Language. SQL queries like SELECT, INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE come under this. 
  • DCL stands for Data Control Language. SQL queries like GRANT and REVOKE come under this.

16.  What is a kernel?
A kernel is the central component of an operating system that manages the operations of computers and hardware

17. What are the different scheduling algorithms?

  • First-Come, First-Served (FCFS) Scheduling. 
  • Shortest-Job-Next (SJN) Scheduling. 
  • Priority Scheduling. 
  • Shortest Remaining Time. 
  • Round Robin(RR) Scheduling. 
  • Multiple-Level Queues Scheduling.

18. What is Banker’s algorithm?
The banker’s algorithm is a resource allocation and deadlock avoidance algorithm that tests for safety by simulating the allocation for the predetermined maximum possible amounts of all resources, then makes an “s-state” check to test for possible activities, before deciding whether allocation should be allowed to continue.

19.  What is multitasking?
Multitasking is a logical extension of a multiprogramming system that supports multiple programs to run concurrently.

20. What is caching?
The cache is a smaller and faster memory that stores copies of the data from frequently used main memory locations.

21. What is the difference between process and thread?

S.NO

Process

Thread

1. Process means any program is in execution. Thread means a segment of a process.
2. The process is less efficient in terms of communication. Thread is more efficient in terms of communication.
3. The process is isolated. Threads share memory.
4. The process is called heavyweight the process. Thread is called lightweight process.
5. Process switching uses, another process interface in operating system. Thread switching does not require to call an operating system and cause an interrupt to the kernel.
6. If one process is blocked then it will not affect the execution of other process  The second, thread in the same task could not run, while one server thread is blocked.

22. What is a zone-based firewall?
A Zone-based firewall is an advanced method of stateful firewall. In a stateful firewall, a stateful database is maintained in which the source IP address, destination IP address, source port number, and destination port number are recorded.

23. What is IP Spoofing?
IP Spoofing is essentially a technique used by hackers to gain unauthorized access to Computers. Concepts of IP Spoofing were initially discussed in academic circles as early as 1980. 

24. What is a VPN?

VPN stands for the virtual private network. A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology that creates a safe and encrypted connection over a less secure network, such as the Internet.

25. Types of Network Topology
Network Topology is the way that defines the structure, and how these components are connected to each other.

Types of Network Topology
The arrangement of a network that comprises nodes and connecting lines via sender and receiver is referred to as Network Topology. The various network topologies are:

  • Point to Point-to-Point topology
  • Mesh Topology
  • Star Topology
  • Bus Topology
  • Ring Topology
  • Tree Topology
  • Hybrid Topology

26. What is IPv4?
IP stands for Internet Protocol and v4 stands for Version Four (IPv4). IPv4 was the primary version brought into action for production within the ARPANET in 1983. IP version four addresses are 32-bit integers which will be expressed in decimal notation. 
Example- 192.0.2.126 could be an IPv4 address

27. Difference between http:// and https://

HTTP                                                             HTTPS
HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol. In HTTP, the URL begins with “http://” HTTPS stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure. In HTTPS, the URL starts with “https://”.
HTTP uses port number 80 for communication. HTTPS uses port number 443 for communication.
Hyper-text exchanged using HTTP goes as plain text i.e. anyone between the browser and server can read it relatively easily if one intercepts this exchange of data and due to which it is Insecure. HTTPS is considered to be secure but at the cost of processing time because Web Server and Web Browser need to exchange encryption keys using Certificates before actual data can be transferred.
HTTP Works at the Application Layer. HTTPS works at Transport Layer.
HTTP does not use encryption, which results in low security in comparison to HTTPS. HTTPS uses Encryption which results in better security than HTTP.
HTTP speed is faster than HTTPS. HTTPS speed is slower than HTTP.
HTTP does not use data hashtags to secure data. HTTPS will have the data before sending it and returning it to its original state on the receiver side.
HTTP is used to transfer text, video, and images via web pages. HTTPS is used to transfer data securely via a network.

28. What is LAN
Local Area Network (LAN) is a collection of computers and other devices that are connected together over a network and are all in the same location within a building like an office or home.

29. Line Configuration in Computer Networks
A network is two or more devices connected through a link. A link is a communication pathway that transfers data from one device to another. Devices can be a computer, printer, or any other device that is capable to send and receive data.

30. TCP/IP Model
TCP/IP was designed and developed by the Department of Defense (DoD) in the 1960s and is based on standard protocols. It stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The TCP/IP model is a concise version of the OSI model. It contains four layers, unlike the seven layers in the OSI model.

31. Merge Sort
Merge sort is defined as a sorting algorithm that works by dividing an array into smaller subarrays, sorting each subarray, and then merging the sorted subarrays back together to form the final sorted array.

32. What is Javascript?
JavaScript is a lightweight, cross-platform, single-threaded, and interpreted compiled programming language. It is also known as the scripting language for web pages.

33. What is AJAX?
Ajax is an acronym for Asynchronous Javascript and XML. It is used to communicate with the server without refreshing the web page thus increasing the user experience and better performance.

34. Difference between Binary Tree and Binary Search Tree

S. No. Basis of Comparison BINARY TREE BINARY SEARCH TREE
1. Definition Binary Tree is a nonlinear data structure where each node can have at most two child nodes.  Binary Search Tree is a node-based binary tree that further has right and left subtree that too are binary search tree.
2. Types
  • Full binary tree
  • Complete binary tree
  • Extended Binary tree and more
  • AVL tree
  • Splay Tree
  • T-trees and more
3. Structure In BINARY TREE there is no ordering in terms of how the nodes are arranged In binary SEARCH TREE the left subtree has elements less than the nodes element and the right subtree has elements greater than the nodes element.
4. Data Representation Data Representation is carried out in a hierarchical format. Data Representation is carried out in the ordered format.
5. Duplicate Values Binary trees allow duplicate values. Binary Search Tree does not allow duplicate values.
6. Speed The speed of deletion, insertion, and searching operations in Binary Tree is slower as compared to Binary Search Tree because it is unordered.  Because the Binary Search Tree has ordered properties, it conducts element deletion, insertion, and searching faster.
7. Complexity Time complexity is usually O(n). Time complexity is usually O(logn).

35. Check whether two Strings are anagrams of each other
An anagram of a string is another string that contains the same characters.

P.S: To check the Pwc Experiences and other asked question go through the attached link



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