Skip to content
Related Articles

Related Articles

Improve Article
Save Article
Like Article

Find index of closing bracket for a given opening bracket in an expression

  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 10 Jan, 2019

Given a string with brackets. If the start index of the open bracket is given, find the index of the closing bracket.

Examples:

Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready.  To complete your preparation from learning a language to DS Algo and many more,  please refer Complete Interview Preparation Course.

In case you wish to attend live classes with experts, please refer DSA Live Classes for Working Professionals and Competitive Programming Live for Students.

Input : string = [ABC[23]][89]
        index = 0
Output : 8
The opening bracket at index 0 corresponds
to closing bracket at index 8.

The idea is to use Stack data structure. We traverse given expression from given index and keep pushing starting brackets. Whenever we encounter a closing bracket, we pop a starting bracket. If stack becomes empty at any moment, we return that index.

C++




// CPP program to find index of closing
// bracket for given opening bracket.
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
// Function to find index of closing
// bracket for given opening bracket.
void test(string expression, int index){
    int i;
      
    // If index given is invalid and is 
    // not an opening bracket.
    if(expression[index]!='['){
        cout << expression << ", " <<
                    index << ": -1\n";
        return;
    }
      
    // Stack to store opening brackets.
    stack <int> st;
      
    // Traverse through string starting from
    // given index.
    for(i = index; i < expression.length(); i++){
          
        // If current character is an 
        // opening bracket push it in stack.
        if(expression[i] == '[')
          st.push(expression[i]);
          
        // If current character is a closing
        // bracket, pop from stack. If stack 
        // is empty, then this closing
        // bracket is required bracket.
        else if(expression[i] == ']'){
            st.pop();
            if(st.empty()){
                cout << expression << ", " << 
                       index << ": " << i << "\n";
                return;
            }
        }
    }
      
    // If no matching closing bracket
    // is found.
    cout << expression << ", " <<
                index << ": -1\n";
}
  
// Driver Code
int main() {
    test("[ABC[23]][89]", 0); // should be 8
    test("[ABC[23]][89]", 4); // should be 7
    test("[ABC[23]][89]", 9); // should be 12
    test("[ABC[23]][89]", 1); // No matching bracket
    return 0;
}
  
// This code is contributed by Nikhil Jindal.

Java




// Java program to find index of closing 
// bracket for given opening bracket. 
import java.util.Stack;
class GFG {
  
// Function to find index of closing 
// bracket for given opening bracket. 
    static void test(String expression, int index) {
        int i;
  
        // If index given is invalid and is 
        // not an opening bracket. 
        if (expression.charAt(index) != '[') {
            System.out.print(expression + ", "
                    + index + ": -1\n");
            return;
        }
  
        // Stack to store opening brackets. 
        Stack<Integer> st = new Stack<>();
  
        // Traverse through string starting from 
        // given index. 
        for (i = index; i < expression.length(); i++) {
  
            // If current character is an 
            // opening bracket push it in stack. 
            if (expression.charAt(i) == '[') {
                st.push((int) expression.charAt(i));
            } // If current character is a closing 
            // bracket, pop from stack. If stack 
            // is empty, then this closing 
            // bracket is required bracket. 
            else if (expression.charAt(i) == ']') {
                st.pop();
                if (st.empty()) {
                    System.out.print(expression + ", "
                            + index + ": " + i + "\n");
                    return;
                }
            }
        }
  
        // If no matching closing bracket 
        // is found. 
        System.out.print(expression + ", "
                + index + ": -1\n");
    }
  
// Driver Code 
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        test("[ABC[23]][89]", 0); // should be 8 
        test("[ABC[23]][89]", 4); // should be 7 
        test("[ABC[23]][89]", 9); // should be 12 
        test("[ABC[23]][89]", 1); // No matching bracket 
    }
// this code is contributed by Rajput-Ji
}

Python




# Python program to find index of closing
# bracket for a given opening bracket.
from collections import deque
  
def getIndex(s, i):
  
    # If input is invalid.
    if s[i] != '[':
        return -1
  
    # Create a deque to use it as a stack.
    d = deque()
  
    # Traverse through all elements
    # starting from i.
    for k in range(i, len(s)):
  
        # Pop a starting bracket
        # for every closing bracket
        if s[k] == ']':
            d.popleft()
  
        # Push all starting brackets
        elif s[k] == '[':
            d.append(s[i])
  
        # If deque becomes empty
        if not d:
            return k
  
    return -1
  
# Driver code to test above method.
def test(s, i):
    matching_index = getIndex(s, i)
    print(s + ", " + str(i) + ": " + str(matching_index))
  
def main():
    test("[ABC[23]][89]", 0) # should be 8
    test("[ABC[23]][89]", 4) # should be 7
    test("[ABC[23]][89]", 9) # should be 12
    test("[ABC[23]][89]", 1) # No matching bracket
  
if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

C#




// C# program to find index of closing 
// bracket for given opening bracket. 
using System;
using System.Collections;
public class GFG { 
  
// Function to find index of closing 
// bracket for given opening bracket. 
    static void test(String expression, int index) { 
        int i; 
  
        // If index given is invalid and is 
        // not an opening bracket. 
        if (expression[index] != '[') { 
            Console.Write(expression + ", "
                    + index + ": -1\n"); 
            return
        
  
        // Stack to store opening brackets. 
        Stack st = new Stack(); 
  
        // Traverse through string starting from 
        // given index. 
        for (i = index; i < expression.Length; i++) { 
  
            // If current character is an 
            // opening bracket push it in stack. 
            if (expression[i] == '[') { 
                st.Push((int) expression[i]); 
            } // If current character is a closing 
            // bracket, pop from stack. If stack 
            // is empty, then this closing 
            // bracket is required bracket. 
            else if (expression[i] == ']') { 
                st.Pop(); 
                if (st.Count==0) { 
                    Console.Write(expression + ", "
                            + index + ": " + i + "\n"); 
                    return
                
            
        
  
        // If no matching closing bracket 
        // is found. 
        Console.Write(expression + ", "
                + index + ": -1\n"); 
    
  
// Driver Code 
    public static void Main() { 
        test("[ABC[23]][89]", 0); // should be 8 
        test("[ABC[23]][89]", 4); // should be 7 
        test("[ABC[23]][89]", 9); // should be 12 
        test("[ABC[23]][89]", 1); // No matching bracket 
    
  
// This code is contributed by 29AjayKumar
  

Output:

[ABC[23]][89], 0: 8
[ABC[23]][89], 4: 7
[ABC[23]][89], 9: 12
[ABC[23]][89], 1: -1

Time Complexity: O(n)
Auxiliary Space: O(n)




My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up
Recommended Articles
Page :

Start Your Coding Journey Now!