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Minimum number of bracket reversals needed to make an expression balanced | Set – 2

  • Difficulty Level : Hard
  • Last Updated : 21 Apr, 2021

Given an expression with only ‘}’ and ‘{‘. The expression may not be balanced. The task is to find minimum number of bracket reversals to make the expression balanced.
Examples: 
 

Input : exp = "}{"
Output : 2
We need to change '}' to '{' and '{' to
'}' so that the expression becomes balanced, 
the balanced expression is '{}'

Input : exp = "}{{}}{{{"
Output : 3
The balanced expression is "{{{}}{}}"

 

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The solution discussed in previous post requires O(n) extra space. The problem can be solved using constant space. 
The idea is to use two variables open and close where, open represents number of unbalanced opening brackets and close represents number of unbalanced close brackets. 
Traverse the string and if current character is an opening bracket increment open. If current character is a closing bracket then check if there are unbalanced opening brackets(open > 0). If yes then decrement open else increment close as this bracket is unbalanced.
Below is the implementation of above approach: 
 

C++




// C++ program to find minimum number of
// reversals required to balance an expression
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Returns count of minimum reversals for making
// expr balanced. Returns -1 if expr cannot be
// balanced.
int countMinReversals(string expr)
{
    int len = expr.length();
 
    // length of expression must be even to make
    // it balanced by using reversals.
    if (len % 2)
        return -1;
 
    // To store number of reversals required.
    int ans = 0;
 
    int i;
 
    // To store number of unbalanced opening brackets.
    int open = 0;
 
    // To store number of unbalanced closing brackets.
    int close = 0;
 
    for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
 
        // If current bracket is open then increment
        // open count.
        if (expr[i] == '{')
            open++;
 
        // If current bracket is close, check if it
        // balances opening bracket. If yes then
        // decrement count of unbalanced opening
        // bracket else increment count of
        // closing bracket.
        else {
            if (!open)
                close++;
            else
                open--;
        }
    }
 
    ans = (close / 2) + (open / 2);
 
    // For the case: "}{" or when one closing and
    // one opening bracket remains for pairing, then
    // both need to be reversed.
    close %= 2;
    open %= 2;
    if (close)
        ans += 2;
 
    return ans;
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    string expr = "}}{{";
 
    cout << countMinReversals(expr);
 
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java program to find minimum number of
// reversals required to balance an expression
class GFG
{
 
// Returns count of minimum reversals for making
// expr balanced. Returns -1 if expr cannot be
// balanced.
static int countMinReversals(String expr)
{
    int len = expr.length();
 
    // length of expression must be even to make
    // it balanced by using reversals.
    if (len % 2 != 0)
        return -1;
 
    // To store number of reversals required.
    int ans = 0;
 
    int i;
 
    // To store number of unbalanced opening brackets.
    int open = 0;
 
    // To store number of unbalanced closing brackets.
    int close = 0;
 
    for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
    {
 
        // If current bracket is open then increment
        // open count.
        if (expr.charAt(i) == '{')
            open++;
 
        // If current bracket is close, check if it
        // balances opening bracket. If yes then
        // decrement count of unbalanced opening
        // bracket else increment count of
        // closing bracket.
        else
        {
            if (open == 0)
                close++;
            else
                open--;
        }
    }
 
    ans = (close / 2) + (open / 2);
 
    // For the case: "}{" or when one closing and
    // one opening bracket remains for pairing, then
    // both need to be reversed.
    close %= 2;
    open %= 2;
    if (close != 0)
        ans += 2;
 
    return ans;
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void main(String args[])
{
    String expr = "}}{{";
 
    System.out.println(countMinReversals(expr));
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Arnab Kundu

Python3




# Python3 program to find minimum number of
# reversals required to balance an expression
 
# Returns count of minimum reversals for
# making expr balanced. Returns -1 if
# expr cannot be balanced.
def countMinReversals(expr):
 
    length = len(expr)
 
    # length of expression must be even to
    # make it balanced by using reversals.
    if length % 2:
        return -1
 
    # To store number of reversals required.
    ans = 0
 
    # To store number of unbalanced
    # opening brackets.
    open = 0
 
    # To store number of unbalanced
    # closing brackets.
    close = 0
 
    for i in range(0, length):
 
        # If current bracket is open
        # then increment open count.
        if expr[i] == "":
            open += 1
 
        # If current bracket is close, check if it
        # balances opening bracket. If yes then
        # decrement count of unbalanced opening
        # bracket else increment count of
        # closing bracket.
        else:
            if not open:
                close += 1
            else:
                open -= 1
         
    ans = (close // 2) + (open // 2)
 
    # For the case: "" or when one closing
    # and one opening bracket remains for
    # pairing, then both need to be reversed.
    close %= 2
    open %= 2
     
    if close > 0:
        ans += 2
 
    return ans
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == "__main__":
 
    expr = "}}{{"
    print(countMinReversals(expr))
 
# This code is contributed by Rituraj Jain

C#




// C# program to find minimum number of
// reversals required to balance an expression
using System;
     
class GFG
{
 
// Returns count of minimum reversals for making
// expr balanced. Returns -1 if expr cannot be
// balanced.
static int countMinReversals(String expr)
{
    int len = expr.Length;
 
    // length of expression must be even to make
    // it balanced by using reversals.
    if (len % 2 != 0)
        return -1;
 
    // To store number of reversals required.
    int ans = 0;
 
    int i;
 
    // To store number of unbalanced opening brackets.
    int open = 0;
 
    // To store number of unbalanced closing brackets.
    int close = 0;
 
    for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
    {
 
        // If current bracket is open then increment
        // open count.
        if (expr[i] == '{')
            open++;
 
        // If current bracket is close, check if it
        // balances opening bracket. If yes then
        // decrement count of unbalanced opening
        // bracket else increment count of
        // closing bracket.
        else
        {
            if (open == 0)
                close++;
            else
                open--;
        }
    }
 
    ans = (close / 2) + (open / 2);
 
    // For the case: "}{" or when one closing and
    // one opening bracket remains for pairing, then
    // both need to be reversed.
    close %= 2;
    open %= 2;
    if (close != 0)
        ans += 2;
 
    return ans;
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void Main(String []args)
{
    String expr = "}}{{";
 
    Console.WriteLine(countMinReversals(expr));
}
}
 
// This code contributed by Rajput-Ji

Javascript




<script>
 
// Javascript program to find minimum number of
// reversals required to balance an expression
 
// Returns count of minimum reversals for making
// expr balanced. Returns -1 if expr cannot be
// balanced.
function countMinReversals(expr)
{
    var len = expr.length;
 
    // length of expression must be even to make
    // it balanced by using reversals.
    if (len % 2)
        return -1;
 
    // To store number of reversals required.
    var ans = 0;
 
    var i;
 
    // To store number of unbalanced opening brackets.
    var open = 0;
 
    // To store number of unbalanced closing brackets.
    var close = 0;
 
    for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
 
        // If current bracket is open then increment
        // open count.
        if (expr[i] == '{')
            open++;
 
        // If current bracket is close, check if it
        // balances opening bracket. If yes then
        // decrement count of unbalanced opening
        // bracket else increment count of
        // closing bracket.
        else {
            if (!open)
                close++;
            else
                open--;
        }
    }
 
    ans = (close / 2) + (open / 2);
 
    // For the case: "}{" or when one closing and
    // one opening bracket remains for pairing, then
    // both need to be reversed.
    close %= 2;
    open %= 2;
    if (close)
        ans += 2;
 
    return ans;
}
 
// Driver Code
var expr = "}}{{";
document.write( countMinReversals(expr));
 
// This code is contributed by noob2000.
</script>
Output: 
2

 

Time Complexity: O(N), where N is the length of the string. 
Auxiliary Space: O(1)
 




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