Open In App

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 2 with Solutions 2023-24

Last Updated : 13 Mar, 2024
Like Article

CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 2 are an essential resource for students preparing for their Class 11 Geography examinations. These sample papers are specifically designed to help students understand the exam pattern, question types, and the level of difficulty they can expect in the actual board exams.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 2 are valuable tools that aid in the preparation and performance of students in their Class 11 Geography examinations. They provide a structured approach to studying, allowing students to assess their knowledge, build confidence, and improve their overall performance. It is recommended that students use these sample papers as part of their study routine to achieve success in their geography exams.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 2 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours Maximum Marks: 80

1. There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes provided below. 1

Assertion: Carbon dioxide is largely responsible for the greenhouse effect.
Reason: The volume of carbon dioxide is rising which has also increased the temperature of the air.
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(B)- Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(C) Both (A) and (R) are incorrect.
(D) (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.

Option (B) is correct.

2. Consider the following and choose the correct answer with the help of given codes 1

Descriptor Magnitude
i. Troposphere 1. Ozone Layer
ii. Stratosphere 2. Temperature decreases with altitude
iii. Mesosphere 3. Temperature increases with height
iv. Ionosphere 4. Normal lapse rate of temperature

Option (C) is correct.

3. The Coriolis Force is the maximum at the: 1

(A) Equator
(B) Poles
(C) Arctic Circle
(D) Antarctic Ocean

Option (B) is correct.

4. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer with the help of the given option: 1

I. Ocean currents have no influence on human activities.
II. The best fishing grounds of the world exist in mixing zone where warm and cold currents meet
(A) Both statements are true.
(B) Only statement I is true.
(C) Only statement II is true.
(D) Both statements are wrong.

Option (C) is correct.

5. Given below is a list of climatic phenomena and their types according to classification, which of the following pair
is not correctly matched? 1

Phenomena Characteristic
(A) ITCZ Winds Converge
(B) Tropical cyclone Arabian Sea
(C) Jet stream North of Himalayas
(D) El Nino Warm Current

Option (B) is correct.

6. The term ‘Holistic Approach’ is related to: 1

(A) overall approach
(B) individualistic approach
(C) seasonal approach
(D) formal approach

Option (A) is correct.

7. Which of the following features can be termed as physical feature? 1

(A) Pbrt
(B) Road
(C) Plain
(D) Water park

Option (C) is correct.

8. The earth has a ……………… structure:

(A) Layered
(B) Non-layered
(C) Piled on
(D) Single

Option (A) is correct.

9. Which one of the following countries is larger in area than India?

(A) China
(B) Egypt
(C) France
(D) Iran

Option (A) is correct.

10. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer with the help of given options:

Statement I: Forests have an intricate interrelationship with life and the environment.
Statement II: The government adopted a forest policy in 1952 and modified it in 1988.
(A) Only statement I is correct.
(B) Only statement II is correct.
(C) Both the statements are correct, and statement II correctly explains statement I.
(D) Both the statements are true but not related with each other.

Option (C) is correct.

11. Arrange the following approaches in the correct order according to their development: 1

(i) Spatial organisation
(ii) Regional approach
(iii) Areal differentiation
(iv) Humanistic approach

(A) i, ii, iv, iii
(B) ii, iii, i, iv
(C) iii, iv, ii, i
(D) iii, i, ii, iv

Option (B) is correct.

12. Monpa, Daffla, Abor, Mishmi, Nishi and the Nagas tribes live in the: 1

(A) Kashmir Himalayas
(B) Sikkim Himalayas
(C) Arunachal Himalayas
(D) Northwestern Himalayas

Option (C) is correct.

13. Khadar and the Bhangar are divisions of: 1

(A) Alluvial plains
(B) Ganga plains
(C) Brahmaputra plains
(D) Northern plains

Option (A) is correct.

14. Which one of the following countries shares the longest land frontier with India : 1

(A) Bangladesh
(B) China
(C) Pakistan
(D) Myanmar

Option (A) is correct.

15. Which gas had the maximum emission in 2010? 1

(A) Methane
(B) Carbon dioxide
(C) Fluorinated gases
(D) None of the above

Option (B) is correct.

16. Which gas had the minimum emission in 1990? 1

(A) Nitrous oxide
(B) Methane
(C) Fluorinated gases
(D) Carbon dioxide

Option (C) is correct.

17. How much Methane was emitted in 2005? 1

(A) Between 30,000 – 40,000 metric tons
(B) Between 40,000 – 50,000 metric tons
(C) Between 60,000 – 70,000 metric tons
(D) Between 20,000 – 30,000 metric tons

Option (A) is correct.

Section – B Question 18 & 19 are Source Based Questions.

18. Read the given Passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: 3

Normally, temperature decreases with an increase in elevation. It is called the normal lapse rate. At times, the situations are reversed and the normal lapse rate is inverted. It is called inversion of temperature. Inversion is usually of short duration but quite common nonetheless. A long winter night with a clear sky and still air is an ideal situation for inversion. The heat of the day is radiated off during the night and by early morning hours, the earth is cooler than the air above. Over polar areas, temperature inversion is normal throughout the year. Surface inversion promotes stability in the lower layers of the atmosphere. Smoke and dust particles get collected beneath the inversion layer and spread horizontally to fill the lower strata of the atmosphere. Dense fogs in the mornings are common occurrences, especially during the winter season. This inversion commonly lasts for few hours until the sun comes up and brings warmth to the earth. The inversion takes place in hills and mountains due to air drainage. Cold air at the hills and mountains, produced during night, flows under the influence of gravity. Being heavy and dense, the cold air acts almost like water and moves down the slope to pile up deeply in pockets and valley bottoms with warm air above. This is called air drainage. It protects plants from frost damages.
a. When does the temperature decrease?
b. When does inversion in temperature occurs?
c. For how long can inversion last?

a. With the increase in elevation the temperature decreases.
b. On clear nights the inversion in temperature occurs.
c. Till the sun comes up the inversion lasts.

19. Observe the below given map and answer the following. 3

a. Name any one state that receives the minimum rainfall.
b. Name any two states that are receiving rainfall between 400 – 200 cm.
c. Identify one state that is receiving rainfall between 40 – 20 cm.

a. Rajasthan, receives rainfall between 0 – 60 cm.
b. Odissa and Chhattisgarh receive rainfall between 400 – 200 cm.
c. Tamil Nadu receives rainfall between 40 – 20 cm.

Section – C Question numbers 20 to 23 are Short Answer Type Questions

20. Name the various hypothesis associated with the formation of the earth. 3

Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the formation of the Earth, each evolving and building upon the last. Here are the three most prominent ones:

1. Nebular Hypothesis:

  • This is the most widely accepted theory and suggests that the Earth formed from a rotating cloud of gas and dust called a solar nebula.
  • Gravity pulled the particles in the nebula together, causing it to flatten into a spinning disk.
  • As the disk condensed, material in the center became denser and hotter, eventually igniting nuclear fusion and forming the Sun.
  • The remaining disk continued to condense and differentiate, with heavier elements forming the planets closer to the Sun and lighter elements forming the outer planets like Earth.
  • Collisions and interactions between smaller bodies within the disk are believed to have played a role in shaping the final composition and orbit of the Earth.

2. Giant Impact Hypothesis:

  • This theory proposes that a Mars-sized object collided with the early Earth millions of years after its formation.
  • The impact ejected a large amount of debris into orbit, some of which eventually coalesced to form the Moon.
  • This theory can explain the Moon’s composition being similar to Earth’s mantle, and why the Moon lacks a significant iron core unlike other planets.

3. Stellar Wind Hypothesis:

  • This less widely accepted theory posits that the early Earth formed closer to the Sun and was subsequently blown outwards by the intense stellar wind from the young Sun.
  • This outward movement caused the Earth to lose lighter elements and explains its relatively high density compared to other inner planets.

It’s important to note that these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, and elements of each might contribute to the overall understanding of the Earth’s formation. Ongoing research and analysis of meteorites and spacecraft data continue to refine these theories and provide a more complete picture of our planet’s origins.


How the inner planets are terrestrial while outer planets are Jovian? Explain. 3

The distinct compositions of the inner and outer planets in our solar system are primarily due to the combined effects of temperature differences during formation and the process of accretion. Here’s a breakdown:

Temperature Differences:

  • Early Solar System: When the solar system formed, a hot, swirling disk of gas and dust surrounded the infant Sun. The temperature gradient varied considerably across this disk, getting hotter closer to the Sun and cooler farther out.
  • Rocky vs. Gaseous Composition: This temperature gradient affected the type of material that could condense and form planets. Closer to the Sun, where it was hotter, lighter elements like hydrogen and helium remained gaseous. Farther out, where it was cooler, heavier elements like oxygen, silicon, iron, and magnesium could condense into solids.

Accretion Process:

  • Inner Planets: The inner planets, closer to the Sun, experienced a faster and more violent accretion process due to the stronger gravitational pull of the Sun. This hot, fast accretion favored the incorporation of heavier elements that had already condensed into solids. These solid materials eventually formed the rocky cores of the inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
  • Outer Planets: Farther from the Sun, the cooler temperatures and slower accretion allowed lighter elements like hydrogen and helium to remain gaseous. These gases dominated the composition of the outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, forming their massive atmospheres. Additionally, icy compounds like water vapor and methane could condense in the cooler regions, forming the icy layers beneath the gas giants’ atmospheres.

Additional Factors:

  • Distance from the Sun: The increased distance from the Sun provided the outer planets with a larger volume of space to accumulate lighter gases, further contributing to their Jovian nature.
  • Collisions and Planetary Migration: Some theories suggest that collisions and migrations of early planetary bodies might have played a role in shaping the final composition of some planets.

Consequences of Planetary Composition:

  • Differing Atmospheres: The contrasting compositions of the inner and outer planets led to the formation of vastly different atmospheres. The inner planets have thin atmospheres predominantly composed of heavier gases like CO2 and N2, whereas the outer planets have thick, hydrogen-dominated atmospheres.
  • Differing Sizes and Densities: The inner planets tend to be smaller and denser due to their rocky cores, while the outer planets are much larger and less dense due to their gaseous composition.
  • Differing Internal Structures: The inner planets generally have a layered structure with a core, mantle, and crust, while the outer planets might have more diffuse internal structures with layers blending into each other.

Understanding the temperature differences and accretion processes during the solar system’s formation provides a fundamental explanation for the distinct compositions of the inner and outer planets, shaping their diverse characteristics and evolutionary paths.

21. When does condensation take place? 3

Condensation, the transformation of water vapor into liquid water, can occur under two main circumstances:

1. Cooling: This is the most common scenario. When warm, moist air cools down, it reaches a point where it can no longer hold the same amount of water vapor. This “saturation point” is known as the dew point. Any excess vapor beyond this point condenses into tiny water droplets, forming phenomena like:

  • Dew: Droplets forming on cool surfaces like grass or car windshields when the air temperature dips below the dew point overnight.
  • Fog: A visible cloud of tiny water droplets suspended near the ground, often formed when warm air cools over a cool surface like a lake or river.
  • Mist: Similar to fog but less dense, usually seen early mornings or evenings when warm air cools slightly but dew point isn’t quite reached.
  • Clouds: Formed when rising air cools and expands, causing widespread condensation at high altitudes.

2. Compression: When air is compressed, its capacity to hold water vapor decreases, even if the temperature remains constant. This can lead to condensation when:

  • Air pressure increases: As an airplane ascends, the surrounding air pressure drops, forcing condensed water to form on windows.
  • Air parcels encounter obstacles: Mountains can force rising air to condense, forming cloud formations on their windward side.

Additional factors influencing condensation:

  • Humidity: Higher humidity, indicating more water vapor present, means less cooling is needed for condensation to occur.
  • Surface properties: Condensation readily occurs on rough surfaces like leaves or dust particles, acting as nuclei for droplet formation.

Remember, both scenarios above rely on the principle that cooler air holds less water vapor. Understanding these circumstances and the dew point concept helps predict when and where condensation is likely to happen.

22. Into how many geological divisions can India be divided? Briefly explain them. 3

India can be divided into three main geological divisions:

  1. The Peninsular Block: This division covers the majority of India’s landmass and is primarily composed of ancient rocks, mainly granites, gneisses, and schists. It forms the stable core of the Indian subcontinent and includes the Deccan Plateau, which is a vast elevated region. The Peninsular Block is relatively stable and less prone to seismic activity compared to other parts of India.
  2. The Himalayan Belt: This division encompasses the northern part of India and is characterized by young folded mountains, including the Himalayas, which are still actively rising due to tectonic forces. The Himalayas are the tallest mountain range in the world and are composed of sedimentary rocks, such as sandstone and shale, along with metamorphic rocks. The region is highly seismic and prone to earthquakes and landslides.
  3. The Indo-Gangetic Plain: This division lies between the Peninsular Block and the Himalayan Belt and is formed by the fertile alluvial deposits brought down by the rivers like the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. It is one of the most densely populated regions in India and is characterized by its flat terrain, suitable for agriculture. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is geologically young and is continuously being reshaped by the rivers flowing through it.

These three geological divisions contribute to India’s diverse landscape, natural resources, and geological hazards.


Write a note on Thar Desert.

The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a vast arid region located primarily in the northwest part of India and extending into the eastern region of Pakistan. Here’s a concise note on the Thar Desert:

The Thar Desert:

  1. Location: Situated in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent, the Thar Desert spans across the Indian states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, and Haryana, as well as the southeastern portion of Pakistan.
  2. Geography: Covering an area of approximately 200,000 square kilometers, the Thar Desert is characterized by a landscape dominated by sand dunes, rocky terrain, and sparse vegetation. It is the world’s 17th largest desert.
  3. Climate: The Thar Desert experiences an arid climate with extremely hot summers and cold winters. Temperatures can soar above 50°C (122°F) in summer and drop significantly during winter nights. Rainfall is scanty and erratic, mainly occurring during the monsoon season between July and September.
  4. Vegetation and Wildlife: Despite its harsh conditions, the Thar Desert supports a unique ecosystem adapted to the arid environment. Vegetation includes hardy shrubs, drought-resistant grasses, and desert flora like cacti and succulents. Wildlife found in the region includes species such as the Indian gazelle (chinkara), desert fox, desert cat, various species of snakes, and migratory birds.
  5. Human Adaptation: Human settlements in the Thar Desert have adapted traditional lifestyles suited to the harsh conditions. Nomadic pastoralists, such as the Rabari and the Raika, rear cattle and other livestock, while agriculture is sustained through innovative techniques like drip irrigation and traditional water harvesting methods.

23. Explain the important features of the Brahmaputra River System. 3

The Brahmaputra River System is one of the major river systems in Asia, with its basin covering several countries including India, China, Bangladesh, and Bhutan. Here are its important features:

  1. Origin and Course: The Brahmaputra River originates from the Chemayungdung Glacier in the Himalayas in Tibet, China, where it is known as the Yarlung Tsangpo. It flows eastward through Tibet, cutting through the Himalayas via the famous Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon, one of the deepest canyons in the world. Upon entering India, it is known as the Brahmaputra, and it continues its journey through the northeastern Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh and Assam before entering Bangladesh, where it merges with the Ganges to form the world’s largest delta, the Sundarbans Delta, before emptying into the Bay of Bengal.
  2. Hydrology and Flooding: The Brahmaputra River is known for its highly variable flow and frequent flooding, particularly during the monsoon season. The river receives heavy rainfall in its catchment area, which, combined with snowmelt from the Himalayas, leads to significant fluctuations in water levels. These floods, while essential for replenishing soil fertility and supporting agriculture, can also cause widespread devastation and displacement of people living in the floodplain.
  3. Economic Importance: The Brahmaputra River System is of immense economic importance to the regions it traverses. It serves as a vital waterway for transportation, facilitating trade and commerce in the northeastern states of India and Bangladesh. The fertile floodplains along its banks support agriculture, with crops such as rice, tea, and jute being cultivated extensively. Additionally, the river has immense hydropower potential, with several dams and hydroelectric projects being developed along its course to harness its energy for electricity generation.

Overall, the Brahmaputra River System plays a crucial role in the ecological, socio-economic, and cultural fabric of the regions it traverses, while also posing challenges such as flooding and erosion that require careful management and sustainable development strategies.

Section – D Question numbers 24 to 28 are Long Answer Type Questions

24. What do you know about the different types of earthquake waves? 5

Earthquake waves, also known as seismic waves, are the vibrations that travel through the Earth’s crust following an earthquake. There are three main types of earthquake waves:

  1. Primary waves (P-waves):
    • P-waves are the fastest seismic waves and are the first to be recorded by seismographs after an earthquake.
    • They are compressional waves that travel through solid and liquid materials.
    • P-waves cause particles in the rock to move back and forth in the direction the wave is traveling, similar to sound waves in air.
    • These waves are relatively small and typically cause less damage compared to other types of seismic waves.
  2. Secondary waves (S-waves):
    • S-waves are slower than P-waves and arrive at seismographs after P-waves.
    • They are shear waves that travel through solid materials but cannot pass through liquids.
    • S-waves cause particles in the rock to move perpendicular to the direction of wave travel, creating a side-to-side shaking motion.
    • These waves are more significant than P-waves and can cause moderate to severe damage to structures.
  3. Surface waves:
    • Surface waves travel along the Earth’s surface and are responsible for the most extensive and most destructive shaking during an earthquake.
    • There are two types of surface waves: Love waves and Rayleigh waves.
    • Love waves move the ground from side to side, similar to S-waves but confined to the Earth’s surface.
    • Rayleigh waves cause particles in the ground to move in elliptical paths, with both vertical and horizontal motion.
    • Surface waves travel slower than P-waves and S-waves but can cause the most significant damage, especially to buildings and infrastructure.

Understanding the characteristics of these different types of earthquake waves is crucial for seismologists to analyze and predict the behavior of earthquakes, as well as for engineers to design structures resilient to seismic activity.

25. Explain in detail the five basic factors that control the formation of soils. 5

The formation of soils, known as pedogenesis, is influenced by a complex interplay of various factors. Here are the five fundamental factors that control soil formation:

  1. Parent Material:
    • Parent material refers to the underlying geological material from which soils develop.
    • The composition and properties of the parent material influence the characteristics of the resulting soil.
    • Different types of parent materials, such as bedrock, sedimentary deposits, volcanic ash, and glacial till, give rise to soils with distinct properties and fertility.
    • The mineral composition, texture, and structure of the parent material determine factors like nutrient availability, drainage, and soil pH.
  2. Climate:
    • Climate is a critical factor in soil formation and includes elements such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind.
    • Temperature affects the rate of chemical reactions and biological activity in the soil. Warmer temperatures generally accelerate soil formation processes.
    • Precipitation and moisture availability influence the rate of weathering, erosion, leaching, and the distribution of soil organisms. Regions with higher rainfall tend to have more leached and acidic soils, while arid regions may have more alkaline soils due to the accumulation of salts.
    • Freeze-thaw cycles in cold climates can contribute to physical weathering processes, such as frost action, which break down rocks and minerals.
  3. Organisms:
    • Living organisms, including plants, animals, microorganisms, and soil fauna, play a crucial role in soil formation.
    • Plant roots penetrate the soil, promoting physical weathering and contributing organic matter through litterfall and root decay.
    • Soil microorganisms decompose organic matter, releasing nutrients and forming humus, a vital component of soil structure and fertility.
    • Earthworms, termites, and other soil fauna aid in soil aeration, nutrient cycling, and soil mixing, affecting soil structure and fertility.
  4. Topography:
    • Topography refers to the physical features of the landscape, including slope, aspect (orientation), and elevation.
    • Slope gradient influences soil erosion, drainage, and the accumulation of sediments. Steeper slopes may experience greater erosion and soil loss, leading to thinner soils, while flat areas may accumulate sediments and develop deeper soils.
    • Aspect affects the amount of sunlight and moisture received by the soil, influencing temperature, evaporation rates, and vegetation patterns.
    • Elevation influences climate, precipitation, and vegetation types, which in turn affect soil formation processes.
  5. Time:
    • Soil formation is a slow and continuous process that occurs over geological time scales.
    • The length of time that soils have been forming influences their development and maturity. Older soils tend to be more weathered, well-developed, and fertile compared to younger soils.
    • Soil formation processes, such as weathering, organic matter accumulation, and mineral transformation, occur gradually over time, leading to the development of distinct soil horizons and profiles.

These five factors interact dynamically to shape the characteristics, properties, and distribution of soils across different landscapes and regions. Understanding these factors is essential for soil scientists, agronomists, and environmental scientists to manage and conserve soil resources effectively.

26. How is Bhabar different from Tarai? 5

Bhabar and Tarai are two distinct geographical features found in the foothills of the Himalayas, particularly in the northern plains of the Indian subcontinent. Here are the differences between Bhabar and Tarai:

  1. Location:
    • Bhabar: Bhabar is located at the base of the Himalayan foothills, immediately adjacent to the mountain range. It stretches parallel to the Himalayas and lies at a higher elevation compared to the Tarai region.
    • Tarai: Tarai is situated further south from the Bhabar region, between the Bhabar and the main plains. It is a low-lying area adjacent to the Bhabar and is characterized by its flat terrain.
  2. Physical Characteristics:
    • Bhabar: Bhabar consists of a narrow belt of rocky, porous, and stony soil. It is devoid of vegetation due to the rapid drainage of water through the porous rocks. Streams and rivers from the Himalayas disappear underground in the Bhabar region.
    • Tarai: Tarai is characterized by fertile alluvial soil deposited by rivers originating from the Himalayas. It is relatively flat and covered with dense forests, grasslands, and marshy areas. Tarai receives higher rainfall compared to Bhabar, contributing to its fertile soil and lush vegetation.
  3. Soil and Vegetation:
    • Bhabar: The soil in Bhabar is often coarse and gravelly, with poor fertility. Vegetation is sparse due to the lack of adequate moisture, and the area is dominated by scrub vegetation and thorny bushes.
    • Tarai: Tarai has rich alluvial soil deposited by rivers, making it highly fertile and suitable for agriculture. The region supports a diverse range of vegetation, including tropical forests, grasslands, and wetlands. It is known for its biodiversity and wildlife habitats.
  4. Human Settlement and Land Use:
    • Bhabar: Bhabar is sparsely populated due to its inhospitable terrain and poor soil fertility. Human settlements are limited, and agriculture is challenging due to the rocky and porous nature of the soil.
    • Tarai: Tarai is densely populated and supports extensive agricultural activities. It is one of the most fertile and productive regions in the Indian subcontinent, contributing significantly to agricultural production. Human settlements, towns, and cities are abundant in the Tarai region.
  5. Hydrology and Flood Risk:
    • Bhabar: Bhabar acts as a natural barrier to flooding in the plains by allowing rivers to percolate underground. Its rocky terrain prevents the rapid flow of water downstream, reducing the risk of flash floods.
    • Tarai: Tarai is prone to flooding during the monsoon season due to its low-lying topography and proximity to rivers originating from the Himalayas. Despite its fertility, agriculture in Tarai is vulnerable to periodic flooding, which can cause damage to crops and infrastructure.

In summary, Bhabar and Tarai are distinct geographical regions with differences in terrain, soil characteristics, vegetation, human settlement patterns, and susceptibility to flooding.


How are the Himalayan rivers different from the Peninsular rivers?

Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers are two distinct categories of river systems found in India, each characterized by different geological origins, hydrological characteristics, and socio-economic significance. Here are the key differences between Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers:

  1. Origin:
    • Himalayan Rivers: The Himalayan rivers originate from the snowmelt of the Himalayan mountain range, the world’s highest and youngest mountain system. These rivers are fed by glaciers, snowmelt, and monsoon rains, resulting in a high volume of water flow, particularly during the summer monsoon season.
    • Peninsular Rivers: Peninsular rivers, on the other hand, originate from the plateau region of the Indian peninsula, primarily from the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats. These rivers have their sources within the Indian subcontinent and are not fed by glaciers. They rely mainly on rainfall, with their flow being more dependent on seasonal variations in precipitation.
  2. Drainage Pattern:
    • Himalayan Rivers: Himalayan rivers exhibit a dendritic or treelike drainage pattern, with numerous tributaries joining the main river channel as it flows downhill from the mountains to the plains. These rivers often have steep gradients and are characterized by fast-flowing, turbulent watercourses, with a high sediment load due to erosion in the mountainous terrain.
    • Peninsular Rivers: Peninsular rivers typically exhibit a radial or centripetal drainage pattern, with streams and rivers flowing outward from a central point, such as a plateau or upland region, toward the surrounding lowlands or coastal areas. The flow of Peninsular rivers is generally slower and more meandering compared to Himalayan rivers, with a lower sediment load.
  3. Hydrological Regime:
    • Himalayan Rivers: Himalayan rivers are characterized by a highly seasonal hydrological regime, with peak flows occurring during the summer monsoon season when the Himalayan glaciers melt and rainfall is abundant. These rivers experience significant fluctuations in water levels, leading to periodic flooding and sediment deposition in the floodplains.
    • Peninsular Rivers: Peninsular rivers have a more stable hydrological regime, with a less pronounced seasonal variation in flow compared to Himalayan rivers. Their flow is primarily influenced by the regional climate and rainfall patterns, with some rivers experiencing intermittent flow or even drying up during the dry season.
  4. Economic Importance:
    • Himalayan Rivers: Himalayan rivers are vital for the irrigation of agricultural lands in the northern plains of India, contributing to the fertility of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. They also support hydroelectric power generation and provide water resources for domestic, industrial, and recreational purposes.
    • Peninsular Rivers: Peninsular rivers are essential for irrigation, particularly in peninsular India’s dry and semi-arid regions. They also support the cultivation of crops such as rice, sugarcane, and cotton. Peninsular rivers are also important for transportation, tourism, and ecosystem services, including biodiversity conservation.

In summary, Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers differ in their origin, drainage pattern, hydrological regime, and socio-economic significance, reflecting the diverse geographical and geological characteristics of India’s landscape.

27. Write a note on Coriolis Force. 5

The Coriolis force is a fundamental concept in meteorology, oceanography, and geophysics that describes the apparent deflection of moving objects, such as air masses or ocean currents, on the rotating Earth. Named after the French scientist Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis, who first described it mathematically in the 19th century, the Coriolis force arises due to the Earth’s rotation and the inertia of moving objects.

Key points about the Coriolis force include:

  1. Effect of Earth’s Rotation: The Coriolis force is an apparent force that arises due to the Earth’s rotation from west to east. As the Earth rotates, different latitudes have different rotational speeds. Near the equator, the rotational speed is greater than at higher latitudes closer to the poles.
  2. Deflection of Moving Objects: When an object, such as an air mass or an ocean current, moves across the Earth’s surface, the Coriolis force causes it to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This deflection occurs perpendicular to the direction of motion.
  3. Explanation: The Coriolis force results from the combination of the object’s velocity and the rotation of the Earth. As the object moves along the Earth’s surface, it maintains its initial velocity due to inertia. However, since different latitudes have different rotational speeds, the object appears to deflect as it moves, creating the Coriolis effect.
  4. Effect on Global Circulation Patterns: The Coriolis force significantly influences large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. For example, it plays a crucial role in the formation of trade winds, westerlies, and polar easterlies in the atmosphere, as well as in the circulation of major ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio Current.
  5. Implications for Weather Systems: The Coriolis force affects the development and movement of weather systems, including cyclones, anticyclones, and hurricanes. In the Northern Hemisphere, cyclones rotate counterclockwise, while in the Southern Hemisphere, they rotate clockwise due to the Coriolis force.

In summary, the Coriolis force is an essential concept in understanding the behavior of moving objects on a rotating Earth. It influences global circulation patterns, weather systems, and ocean currents, and its effects are pervasive in meteorology, oceanography, and atmospheric science.


What are the forms of condensation? Describe the process of dew and frost formation.

Condensation is the process by which water vapor in the atmosphere changes into liquid water or solid ice. There are several forms of condensation, including dew, frost, fog, clouds, and precipitation. Here, I’ll focus on dew and frost formation:

  1. Dew Formation: Dew forms when moist air comes into contact with a surface that is cooler than the dew point temperature of the air. The dew point is the temperature at which air becomes saturated with water vapor, leading to condensation. Dew formation typically occurs during clear, calm nights with relatively high humidity levels.Process of Dew Formation:
    • During the day, the Earth’s surface absorbs solar radiation, warming the ground and the air immediately above it.
    • At night, as the Earth’s surface cools, it radiates heat back into the atmosphere. This cooling effect lowers the temperature of the ground and adjacent air layers.
    • When the temperature of the ground drops below the dew point temperature of the surrounding air, moisture in the air condenses onto the cooler surface in the form of water droplets.
    • Dew forms most prominently on surfaces that cool rapidly, such as grass, leaves, car windows, or metal objects.
    • The formation of dew is more likely in areas with high humidity levels and clear skies, as these conditions promote the cooling of the Earth’s surface to the dew point temperature.
  2. Frost Formation: Frost is the solid deposition of water vapor directly into ice crystals on surfaces. It occurs under similar conditions to dew formation but at temperatures below freezing point. Frost formation is most common during clear, calm nights with low humidity levels and temperatures below freezing.Process of Frost Formation:
    • Similar to dew formation, the Earth’s surface cools at night as it radiates heat into the atmosphere, causing its temperature to drop below the freezing point of water.
    • When the air temperature is below freezing and the surface temperature is below the dew point, water vapor in the air skips the liquid phase and directly forms ice crystals on the surface.
    • These ice crystals accumulate on surfaces such as grass, leaves, branches, windows, and cars, creating a delicate layer of frost.
    • Frost formation is more likely in areas with clear skies, low humidity, and light winds, as these conditions promote rapid cooling of surfaces below the freezing point.

In summary, dew forms when moist air comes into contact with a cooler surface, leading to the condensation of water vapor into liquid droplets, while frost forms when water vapor directly transitions into ice crystals on surfaces at temperatures below freezing point. Both processes are influenced by temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions, and they contribute to the delicate balance of water in the Earth’s atmosphere.

28. Draw a simplified diagram to show the general circulation of the atmosphere over the globe. What are the possible reasons for the formation of subtropical high pressure over 30°N and S latitudes? 5

The general circulation of the atmosphere is driven by the differential heating of the Earth’s surface, which leads to the formation of distinct atmospheric circulation cells known as the Hadley Cell, Ferrel Cell, and Polar Cell. Here’s a simplified description:

  1. Hadley Cell:
    • Near the equator, intense solar radiation heats the Earth’s surface, causing air to rise and form an area of low pressure.
    • As the air rises, it cools, condenses, and releases moisture, leading to the formation of heavy rainfall and thunderstorms in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ).
    • The rising air diverges aloft and moves poleward towards the subtropics, where it descends around 30°N and 30°S latitudes, forming regions of high pressure known as subtropical high-pressure systems.
  1. Ferrel Cell:
    • At mid-latitudes, around 30°N to 60°N and 30°S to 60°S, the descending air from the subtropical high-pressure systems meets the ascending air from the polar regions.
    • This convergence leads to the formation of mid-latitude cyclones and prevailing westerly winds known as the westerlies.
  2. Polar Cell:
    • Near the poles, cold air descends and forms regions of high pressure.
    • The cold, dense air then moves equatorward towards the mid-latitudes, completing the atmospheric circulation loop.

Formation of Subtropical High-Pressure Systems: The subtropical high-pressure systems are primarily formed due to the following reasons:

  1. Subsidence: As air rises at the equator in the Hadley Cell, it cools and loses moisture, becoming denser. This cooler, denser air subsides around 30°N and 30°S latitudes, creating areas of high pressure.
  2. Adiabatic Compression: As the air descends, it undergoes adiabatic compression, which further warms and dries the air. This warming enhances the stability of the atmosphere and suppresses cloud formation, leading to clear skies and dry conditions characteristic of high-pressure systems.
  3. Global Circulation Patterns: The rotation of the Earth (Coriolis effect) and the latitudinal variations in solar heating drive the general circulation of the atmosphere, resulting in the formation of subtropical high-pressure belts near 30°N and 30°S latitudes.

Overall, subtropical high-pressure systems play a crucial role in shaping global weather patterns and climate, influencing regional climates, wind patterns, and precipitation distribution.

Section – E Question numbers 29 & 30 are Map based questions having 5 sub-parts each.

29. On the outline map of India, show the following: 5

(A) Any one Area of winter rain
(B)Any one Area of burst of monsoon in first week of june
(C) Any one Area having variability of rainfall over 50 per cent
(D) Any one Area having less than 15°C temperatures in January
(E) Isohyet of 100cm
(F) Any one Area has more than 200 cm of annual rainfall
(G) Any one Area having 40 – 60 cm seasonal rainfall

(A) Punjab or Haryana
(B) Kerala
(C) Maharashtra
(D) Jammu and Kashmir
(E) Bihar
(F) Assam
(G) Gujarat (Any five)

30. On the outline map of the world, locate and mark any five of the following: 5

(A) West wind drift
(B) North Atlantic drift
(C) Brazilian current
(D) Labrador current
(E) Equatorial counter current
(F) Kuroshio current

(A) West wind drift
(B) North Atlantic drift
(C) Brazilian current
(E) Equatorial counter current
(F) Kuroshio current (Any five)

                                Similar Reads

                                CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography (2023-24) Set 1 with Solution
                                CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 1 are an essential resource for students preparing for their Class 11 Geography examinations. These sample papers are specifically designed to help students understand the exam pattern, question types, and the level of difficulty they can expect in the actual board
                                27 min read
                                CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science (2023-24) Set 1 with Solutions
                                CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 1 with Solutions are a valuable resource for students preparing for their Class 11 Political Science examinations. These sample papers provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the exam pattern, question types, and important topics. They also o
                                37 min read
                                CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Economics (2023-24) Set 1 with Solutions
                                CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Economics (Set 1) with Solutions are designed to help students prepare for their Class 11 Economics examinations. These sample papers provide a valuable resource for practice and revision. Here's a general introduction to CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Economics: Purpose: Practice: CBSE Sample Papers offer students
                                42 min read
                                CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 History Set 2 with Solutions 2023-24
                                CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) Sample Papers for Class 11 History are typically designed to help students prepare for their upcoming examinations. These sample papers are created by experts and are meant to simulate the format and difficulty level of the actual Class 11 History exam. The sample papers cover various topics and chapters
                                27 min read
                                CBSE Sample Papers II for Class 11 Economics with Solutions 2023-2024
                                For the CBSE Sample Papers II for Class 11 Economics with solutions for the academic year 2023-2024, you can find comprehensive materials and solved papers to help in your exam preparation. These resources are designed to give you a clear understanding of the pattern of questions asked in the board exam and cover important concepts you need to prep
                                37 min read
                                CBSE Sample Papers Class 11 History (2023-24) Set-1 with Solution
                                CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) Sample Papers for Class 11 History are typically designed to help students prepare for their upcoming examinations. These sample papers are created by experts and are meant to simulate the format and difficulty level of the actual Class 11 History exam. The sample papers cover various topics and chapters
                                37 min read
                                CBSE Sample Papers for Class 9 Social Science Set 2 with Solutions
                                The CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) sample papers for Class 9 Social Science Set 2 with solutions serve as valuable resources for students preparing for their examinations. These sample papers are designed by subject matter experts to align with the latest CBSE syllabus and exam pattern, providing students with a comprehensive overview
                                41 min read
                                CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 2 with Solutions
                                CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 2 with Solutions are a valuable resource for students preparing for their Class 11 Political Science examinations. These sample papers provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the exam pattern, question types, and important topics. They also o
                                43 min read
                                NCERT Solutions Class 11 Geography Chapter 1: Geography as a Discipline
                                NCERT Solutions Class 11 Geography Chapter 1: Geography as a Discipline– This article includes free NCERT Solutions Class 11 Geography Chapter 1: Geography as a Discipline according to the latest CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, and guidelines. It has been developed by the subject matter experts at GFG, to help the students of Class 11 create a solid concept
                                8 min read
                                CBSE Class 9 Social Science (2023-24) Sample Paper Set 1
                                Summative Assessment 1 (SA 1) is an essential part of the CBSE Class 9 curriculum, designed to assess students' understanding and knowledge of various topics in Social Science. This sample paper serves as a valuable practice resource to help students prepare effectively for their SA 1 examination. his sample paper adheres to the CBSE examination pa
                                22 min read