Eulerian path and circuit for undirected graph

Eulerian Path is a path in graph that visits every edge exactly once. Eulerian Circuit is an Eulerian Path which starts and ends on the same vertex.

Euler1

Euler2

Euler3

How to find whether a given graph is Eulerian or not?
The problem is same as following question. “Is it possible to draw a given graph without lifting pencil from the paper and without tracing any of the edges more than once”.

A graph is called Eulerian if it has an Eulerian Cycle and called Semi-Eulerian if it has an Eulerian Path. The problem seems similar to Hamiltonian Path which is NP complete problem for a general graph. Fortunately, we can find whether a given graph has a Eulerian Path or not in polynomial time. In fact, we can find it in O(V+E) time.

Following are some interesting properties of undirected graphs with an Eulerian path and cycle. We can use these properties to find whether a graph is Eulerian or not.

Eulerian Cycle
An undirected graph has Eulerian cycle if following two conditions are true.
….a) All vertices with non-zero degree are connected. We don’t care about vertices with zero degree because they don’t belong to Eulerian Cycle or Path (we only consider all edges).
….b) All vertices have even degree.

Eulerian Path
An undirected graph has Eulerian Path if following two conditions are true.
….a) Same as condition (a) for Eulerian Cycle
….b) If zero or two vertices have odd degree and all other vertices have even degree. Note that only one vertex with odd degree is not possible in an undirected graph (sum of all degrees is always even in an undirected graph)

Note that a graph with no edges is considered Eulerian because there are no edges to traverse.

How does this work?
In Eulerian path, each time we visit a vertex v, we walk through two unvisited edges with one end point as v. Therefore, all middle vertices in Eulerian Path must have even degree. For Eulerian Cycle, any vertex can be middle vertex, therefore all vertices must have even degree.

C++

// A C++ program to check if a given graph is Eulerian or not
#include<iostream>
#include <list>
using namespace std;

// A class that represents an undirected graph
class Graph
{
    int V;    // No. of vertices
    list<int> *adj;    // A dynamic array of adjacency lists
public:
    // Constructor and destructor
    Graph(int V)   {this->V = V; adj = new list<int>[V]; }
    ~Graph() { delete [] adj; } // To avoid memory leak

     // function to add an edge to graph
    void addEdge(int v, int w);

    // Method to check if this graph is Eulerian or not
    int isEulerian();

    // Method to check if all non-zero degree vertices are connected
    bool isConnected();

    // Function to do DFS starting from v. Used in isConnected();
    void DFSUtil(int v, bool visited[]);
};

void Graph::addEdge(int v, int w)
{
    adj[v].push_back(w);
    adj[w].push_back(v);  // Note: the graph is undirected
}

void Graph::DFSUtil(int v, bool visited[])
{
    // Mark the current node as visited and print it
    visited[v] = true;

    // Recur for all the vertices adjacent to this vertex
    list<int>::iterator i;
    for (i = adj[v].begin(); i != adj[v].end(); ++i)
        if (!visited[*i])
            DFSUtil(*i, visited);
}

// Method to check if all non-zero degree vertices are connected.
// It mainly does DFS traversal starting from
bool Graph::isConnected()
{
    // Mark all the vertices as not visited
    bool visited[V];
    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < V; i++)
        visited[i] = false;

    // Find a vertex with non-zero degree
    for (i = 0; i < V; i++)
        if (adj[i].size() != 0)
            break;

    // If there are no edges in the graph, return true
    if (i == V)
        return true;

    // Start DFS traversal from a vertex with non-zero degree
    DFSUtil(i, visited);

    // Check if all non-zero degree vertices are visited
    for (i = 0; i < V; i++)
       if (visited[i] == false && adj[i].size() > 0)
            return false;

    return true;
}

/* The function returns one of the following values
   0 --> If grpah is not Eulerian
   1 --> If graph has an Euler path (Semi-Eulerian)
   2 --> If graph has an Euler Circuit (Eulerian)  */
int Graph::isEulerian()
{
    // Check if all non-zero degree vertices are connected
    if (isConnected() == false)
        return 0;

    // Count vertices with odd degree
    int odd = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < V; i++)
        if (adj[i].size() & 1)
            odd++;

    // If count is more than 2, then graph is not Eulerian
    if (odd > 2)
        return 0;

    // If odd count is 2, then semi-eulerian.
    // If odd count is 0, then eulerian
    // Note that odd count can never be 1 for undirected graph
    return (odd)? 1 : 2;
}

// Function to run test cases
void test(Graph &g)
{
    int res = g.isEulerian();
    if (res == 0)
        cout << "graph is not Eulerian\n";
    else if (res == 1)
        cout << "graph has a Euler path\n";
    else
        cout << "graph has a Euler cycle\n";
}

// Driver program to test above function
int main()
{
    // Let us create and test graphs shown in above figures
    Graph g1(5);
    g1.addEdge(1, 0);
    g1.addEdge(0, 2);
    g1.addEdge(2, 1);
    g1.addEdge(0, 3);
    g1.addEdge(3, 4);
    test(g1);

    Graph g2(5);
    g2.addEdge(1, 0);
    g2.addEdge(0, 2);
    g2.addEdge(2, 1);
    g2.addEdge(0, 3);
    g2.addEdge(3, 4);
    g2.addEdge(4, 0);
    test(g2);

    Graph g3(5);
    g3.addEdge(1, 0);
    g3.addEdge(0, 2);
    g3.addEdge(2, 1);
    g3.addEdge(0, 3);
    g3.addEdge(3, 4);
    g3.addEdge(1, 3);
    test(g3);

    // Let us create a graph with 3 vertices
    // connected in the form of cycle
    Graph g4(3);
    g4.addEdge(0, 1);
    g4.addEdge(1, 2);
    g4.addEdge(2, 0);
    test(g4);

    // Let us create a graph with all veritces
    // with zero degree
    Graph g5(3);
    test(g5);

    return 0;
}

Java

// A Java program to check if a given graph is Eulerian or not
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
import java.util.LinkedList;

// This class represents an undirected graph using adjacency list
// representation
class Graph
{
    private int V;   // No. of vertices

    // Array  of lists for Adjacency List Representation
    private LinkedList<Integer> adj[];

    // Constructor
    Graph(int v)
    {
        V = v;
        adj = new LinkedList[v];
        for (int i=0; i<v; ++i)
            adj[i] = new LinkedList();
    }

    //Function to add an edge into the graph
    void addEdge(int v, int w)
    {
        adj[v].add(w);// Add w to v's list.
        adj[w].add(v); //The graph is undirected
    }

    // A function used by DFS
    void DFSUtil(int v,boolean visited[])
    {
        // Mark the current node as visited
        visited[v] = true;

        // Recur for all the vertices adjacent to this vertex
        Iterator<Integer> i = adj[v].listIterator();
        while (i.hasNext())
        {
            int n = i.next();
            if (!visited[n])
                DFSUtil(n, visited);
        }
    }

    // Method to check if all non-zero degree vertices are
    // connected. It mainly does DFS traversal starting from
	boolean isConnected()
	{
	    // Mark all the vertices as not visited
	    boolean visited[] = new boolean[V];
	    int i;
	    for (i = 0; i < V; i++)
	        visited[i] = false;

	    // Find a vertex with non-zero degree
	    for (i = 0; i < V; i++)
	        if (adj[i].size() != 0)
	            break;

	    // If there are no edges in the graph, return true
	    if (i == V)
	        return true;

	    // Start DFS traversal from a vertex with non-zero degree
	    DFSUtil(i, visited);

	    // Check if all non-zero degree vertices are visited
	    for (i = 0; i < V; i++)
	       if (visited[i] == false && adj[i].size() > 0)
	            return false;

	    return true;
	}

	/* The function returns one of the following values
	   0 --> If grpah is not Eulerian
	   1 --> If graph has an Euler path (Semi-Eulerian)
	   2 --> If graph has an Euler Circuit (Eulerian)  */
	int isEulerian()
	{
	    // Check if all non-zero degree vertices are connected
	    if (isConnected() == false)
	        return 0;

	    // Count vertices with odd degree
	    int odd = 0;
	    for (int i = 0; i < V; i++)
	        if (adj[i].size()%2!=0)
	            odd++;

	    // If count is more than 2, then graph is not Eulerian
	    if (odd > 2)
	        return 0;

	    // If odd count is 2, then semi-eulerian.
	    // If odd count is 0, then eulerian
	    // Note that odd count can never be 1 for undirected graph
	    return (odd==2)? 1 : 2;
	}

	// Function to run test cases
	void test()
	{
	    int res = isEulerian();
	    if (res == 0)
	        System.out.println("graph is not Eulerian");
	    else if (res == 1)
	        System.out.println("graph has a Euler path");
	    else
	       System.out.println("graph has a Euler cycle");
	}

    // Driver method
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
		// Let us create and test graphs shown in above figures
	    Graph g1 = new Graph(5);
	    g1.addEdge(1, 0);
	    g1.addEdge(0, 2);
	    g1.addEdge(2, 1);
	    g1.addEdge(0, 3);
	    g1.addEdge(3, 4);
	    g1.test();

	    Graph g2 = new Graph(5);
	    g2.addEdge(1, 0);
	    g2.addEdge(0, 2);
	    g2.addEdge(2, 1);
	    g2.addEdge(0, 3);
	    g2.addEdge(3, 4);
	    g2.addEdge(4, 0);
	    g2.test();

	    Graph g3 = new Graph(5);
	    g3.addEdge(1, 0);
	    g3.addEdge(0, 2);
	    g3.addEdge(2, 1);
	    g3.addEdge(0, 3);
	    g3.addEdge(3, 4);
	    g3.addEdge(1, 3);
	    g3.test();

	    // Let us create a graph with 3 vertices
	    // connected in the form of cycle
	    Graph g4 = new Graph(3);
	    g4.addEdge(0, 1);
	    g4.addEdge(1, 2);
	    g4.addEdge(2, 0);
	    g4.test();

	    // Let us create a graph with all veritces
	    // with zero degree
	    Graph g5 = new Graph(3);
	    g5.test();
    }
}
// This code is contributed by Aakash Hasija

Python

# Python program to check if a given graph is Eulerian or not
#Complexity : O(V+E)
 
from collections import defaultdict
 
#This class represents a undirected graph using adjacency list representation
class Graph:
 
	def __init__(self,vertices):
		self.V= vertices #No. of vertices
		self.graph = defaultdict(list) # default dictionary to store graph
 
	# function to add an edge to graph
	def addEdge(self,u,v):
		self.graph[u].append(v)
		self.graph[v].append(u)
 
	#A function used by isConnected
	def DFSUtil(self,v,visited):
		# Mark the current node as visited 
		visited[v]= True

		#Recur for all the vertices adjacent to this vertex
		for i in self.graph[v]:
			if visited[i]==False:
				self.DFSUtil(i,visited)
 
 
	'''Method to check if all non-zero degree vertices are
    connected. It mainly does DFS traversal starting from 
    node with non-zero degree'''
	def isConnected(self):
 
		# Mark all the vertices as not visited
		visited =[False]*(self.V)

		#  Find a vertex with non-zero degree
		for i in range(self.V):
			if len(self.graph[i]) > 1:
				break

		# If there are no edges in the graph, return true
		if i == self.V-1:
			return True

		# Start DFS traversal from a vertex with non-zero degree
		self.DFSUtil(i,visited)

		# Check if all non-zero degree vertices are visited
		for i in range(self.V):
			if visited[i]==False and len(self.graph[i]) > 0:
				return False
		
		return True


	'''The function returns one of the following values
       0 --> If grpah is not Eulerian
       1 --> If graph has an Euler path (Semi-Eulerian)
       2 --> If graph has an Euler Circuit (Eulerian)  '''
	def isEulerian(self):
		# Check if all non-zero degree vertices are connected
		if self.isConnected() == False:
			return 0
		else:
			#Count vertices with odd degree
			odd = 0
			for i in range(self.V):
				if len(self.graph[i]) % 2 !=0:
					odd +=1

			'''If odd count is 2, then semi-eulerian.
        	If odd count is 0, then eulerian
        	If count is more than 2, then graph is not Eulerian
        	Note that odd count can never be 1 for undirected graph'''
			if odd == 0:
				return 2
			elif odd == 2:
				return 1
			elif odd > 2:
				return 0


 	# Function to run test cases
 	def test(self):
 		res = self.isEulerian()
 		if res == 0:
 			print "graph is not Eulerian"
 		elif res ==1 :
 			print "graph has a Euler path"
 		else:
 			print "graph has a Euler cycle"
 
 

#Let us create and test graphs shown in above figures
g1 = Graph(5);
g1.addEdge(1, 0)
g1.addEdge(0, 2)
g1.addEdge(2, 1)
g1.addEdge(0, 3)
g1.addEdge(3, 4)
g1.test()

g2 = Graph(5)
g2.addEdge(1, 0)
g2.addEdge(0, 2)
g2.addEdge(2, 1)
g2.addEdge(0, 3)
g2.addEdge(3, 4)
g2.addEdge(4, 0)
g2.test();

g3 = Graph(5)
g3.addEdge(1, 0)
g3.addEdge(0, 2)
g3.addEdge(2, 1)
g3.addEdge(0, 3)
g3.addEdge(3, 4)
g3.addEdge(1, 3)
g3.test()

#Let us create a graph with 3 vertices
# connected in the form of cycle
g4 = Graph(3)
g4.addEdge(0, 1)
g4.addEdge(1, 2)
g4.addEdge(2, 0)
g4.test()

# Let us create a graph with all veritces
# with zero degree
g5 = Graph(3)
g5.test()

#This code is contributed by Neelam Yadav


Output:
graph has a Euler path
graph has a Euler cycle
graph is not Eulerian
graph has a Euler cycle
graph has a Euler cycle

Time Complexity: O(V+E)

We will soon be covering following topics on Eulerian Path and Circuit
1) Eulerian Path and Circuit for a Directed Graphs.
2) How to print a Eulerian Path or Circuit?

References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eulerian_path

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