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NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Economics Social Science Chapter 1 : Development

Last Updated : 02 Aug, 2023
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 provides information on the economic development which takes place in the economy of the country and about the idea of progress and development and about how a country should function. In this chapter, students will understand the values and aspects of development which is needed by the company. The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development contains the answers to the questions and will help the students to perform better in the examinations.

NCERT Solutions Economics Class 10 Chapter 1

NCERT Solutions Economics Class 10 Chapter 1

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Economics Social Science Chapter 1: Development

The solutions from Chapter 1 of Understanding of Economic Development are given below and students can also check NCERT Solutions for Class 10 for other subjects as well.

Exercise Page No. 16

1. Development of a country can generally be determined by

(i) It’s per capita income

(ii) its average literacy level

(iii) health status of its people

(iv) all of the above


(iv) All of the above.

2. Which of the following neighboring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?

(i) Bangladesh

(ii) Sri Lanka

(iii) Nepal

(iv) Pakistan


(ii) Sri Lanka. According to the latest report(2023) of HDI published by UNDP, India scores 132 out of 191 countries which is 0.633. Whereas other neighboring countries’ scores are Sri Lanka (73rd), China (79th), Bangladesh (129th), Bhutan (127th), Pakistan (161st), Nepal (143rd), and Myanmar (149th).

3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families ₹ 5000. If the income of three families is ₹ 4000, ₹ 7000 and ₹ 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?

(i) ₹ 7500

(ii) ₹ 3000

(iii) ₹ 2000

(iv) ₹ 6000


(iv) 6000

(4000+7000+3000+x)/ 4= 5000

14000+x= 5000*4

x= 20000-14000

x= 6000

4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?


  1. The World Bank stated that a country’s level of development is closely correlated with its per capita income in World Development Reports (2006). Higher per capita income is frequently associated with increased economic growth and an improvement in the standard of living for the populace.
  2. This is in accordance with how the World Bank categorizes nations:
    1. Rich countries: nations with per-capita incomes of at least US$12616 in 2012.
    2. Countries with a per capita income of $1035 or less are considered low-income countries. India falls under the low- to middle-income category because the country’s per capita income in 2012 was only US$ 1530.

The term “developed countries” generally refers to wealthy nations, excluding Middle Eastern nations and some other minor nations.


  • Income inequality within a population is not taken into account by per capita income.
  • Indicators of per capita income do not take into account the cost of living in various areas or nations.
  • The economic activities that take place in the informal sector may not be fully reflected in calculations of per capita income.
  • An in-depth understanding of a nation’s development might not be possible with just per capita income.

5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?


The criteria used by the World Bank :

  • The UNDP focuses on multifaceted aspects of development, such as income, health, and education, to capture the general well-being of people.
  • When evaluating development, the UNDP takes social indicators like life expectancy and literacy rates into account.
  • By comparing nations using a standardized index, the UNDP’s HDI offers a global perspective on development.
  • The primary development indicator used by the UNDP is the Human Development Index (HDI).

6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.


  • We use averages because averages can be used to compare different quantities of the same category, we often use them.
  • In order to calculate a country’s per capita income, for instance, averages must be used because different groups of people have different incomes.
  • The use of averages does come with some restrictions, though. This does not depict how things are distributed among people. For illustration, consider a nation where an auto driver earns ₹ 10,000 per year while receiving ₹1,00,000 per year. Consequently, this nation’s average income will be ₹ 5,05,000 per year. In this case, the actual income or status is unknown. This country can be categorically regarded as wealthy by ignoring the income gap between the two people. Averages can be used for comparison while also hiding the differences.

7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Maharashtra. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.


No, I do not concur that per capita income is not at all a useful criterion. Kerala, which has a lower per capita income than Maharashtra, is ranked higher in terms of HDI because this measure takes into account factors like income, health, and education. Therefore, this is not to say that per capita income is not important. Instead, per capita income should not be overlooked as one of the development factors. The World Bank compares and measures states based on their per capita income as a measure of their level of development. However, this criterion has some limitations, so it is used in conjunction with other development factors like health, education, and other factors to determine the HDI. If a country’s national income decrease than its population growth, it will result in a decline in the number of goods and services available per person and the nation’s economic welfare.

8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?


India’s population currently uses electricity, coal, crude oil, cow dung, and solar energy as energy sources. The estimated lifespan of India’s known oil reserves is only 30–40 years. So, given the impending threat of oil resources running out, other options in fifty years could include ethanol, nuclear energy, biodiesel, and better utilization of wind, solar, wave, hydrogen, biomass energy, geothermal, hydroelectric, and tidal.

9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?


Sustainable Development is important because:

  • Economic resilience and sustainability go hand in hand.
  • It recognizes the significance of encouraging economic systems.
  • By being sustainable, development meets current needs without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
  • It acknowledges that all societal groups, especially the weak and marginalized ones, should benefit from development.
  • Human welfare and the health of the natural environment are interdependent, and sustainable development acknowledges this.

10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.


The resources on Earth are sufficient to meet all needs, but they must be used wisely.

  • Excessive usage of resources will cause environmental deterioration, which will eventually influence both the current and coming generations.
  • The development should not be excessively invasive or exploitative, but rather sustainable.
  • Allowing for the practice of “green economic development” will allow for the sustainment of resources.

11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.


As carbon dioxide levels rise in the atmosphere, human activity worsens environmental degradation. Environmental aspects, such as the availability of water, may be impacted by global warming. The transpiration of plants is increased by warming. The likelihood of flooding and drought both rise with earlier snowmelt.

Following are some additional instances of environmental degradation:

  • Soil erosion.
  • Deforestation
  • Lowering groundwater levels.
  • Depletion of the ozone layer due to combustion from automobiles.
  • Water Pollution.
  • Making use of pesticides and fertilizers made of chemicals.

12. For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.

Country Gross National Income (GNI per capita) Life Expectancy at Birth Mean Years of Schooling of People aged 25 and above HDI Rank in the World (2018)
Sri Lanka 12,707 77 10.6 73
India 6,681 69.7 6.5 130
Myanmar 4,961 67.1 5.0 148
Pakistan 5,005 67.3 5.2 154
Nepal 3,457 70.8 5.0 143
Bangladesh 4,976 72.6 6.2 134


  1. Per capita income(GNI) in USD : Top Country – Sri Lanka; Bottom Country – Nepal
  2. Life Expectancy at birth: Top Country – Sri Lanka; Bottom Country – Myanmar
  3. Literacy Rate for 25+yrs population 2005-2012: Top Country – Sri Lanka; Bottom – Nepal & Myanmar
  4. HDI Rank in the World: Top Country – Sri Lanka; Bottom – Pakistan

As per Table 1.6, Sri Lanka tops in all four categories and has the highest Gross National Income, Life Expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling of people aged 25 or above, and HDI rank in the world.

13. The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions.

State Male Female






Madhya Pradesh   43      42
All States   37      36

(i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.

(ii) Can you guess why around 40 percent of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.


i) People in Madhya Pradesh and Kerala have different nutritional levels. In Kerala, there are 22% and 19% of men and women are undernourished, whereas, in Madhya Pradesh, it is 43% and 42% of men and women, respectively. This suggests that Kerala has better nutrition than Madhya Pradesh, where the average is lower than the national average and the latter is higher.

ii) Nearly 40% of India’s population is undernourished, despite the availability of sufficient food in the nation. This is a result of the uneven and chaotic distribution of food. Ration shops and other public distribution systems run smoothly in some states of the nation. This guarantees that no one goes hungry, especially the poor for whom food grains are provided by ration shops at reduced prices.

Important Topics Covered in this Chapter

  1. Introduction to Development
  2. What Development Promises- Different people have different goals
  3. Income and Other Goals
  4. National Development and How to Compare Different Countries or States?
  5. Public Facilities
  6. Sustainability of Development

FAQs on NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Economics Social Science Chapter 1

Q 1. What are the topics covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1?


The topics covered in the NCERT Solutions Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 include:

  1. Introduction to Development
  2. What Development Promises- Different people have different goals
  3. Income and Other Goals
  4. National Development and How to Compare Different Countries or States?
  5. Public Facilities
  6. Sustainability of Development

Q 2. What are the key highlights of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1?


The important points of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 include all the important topics and sub-topics related to the chapter and the students get a concise knowledge about the text questions and also answer the questions accurately.

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