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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Social Science Chapter 2 : Sectors of the Indian Economy

Last Updated : 02 Aug, 2023
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You may get the right answers to the practice problems from the textbook in the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 2. Students may use this resource to study for exams and deal with issues about NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2. These responses will help them communicate their responses clearly. They may also use these answers as a resource while they get ready for their CBSE examinations.

NCERT Solutions Economics Chapter 2

NCERT Solutions Economics Chapter 2

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Social Science Chapter 2: Sectors of the Indian Economy

The solutions for Chapter 2 of Economics have been provided below and students can check NCERT Solutions for Class 10 for other subjects as well.

Exercise page no. 35

1. Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket:

(i) Employment in the service sector _________ increased to the same extent as production. (has/has not)

(ii) Workers in the _________ sector do not produce goods. (tertiary/agricultural)

(iii) Most of the workers in the _________ sector enjoy job security. (organized/unorganized)

(iv) A _________ proportion of laborers in India are working in the unorganized sector. (large/small)

(v) Cotton is a _________ product and cloth is a _________ product. (natural /manufactured)

(vi) The activities in primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors are_________ (independent/interdependent)

Answer-

(i) Employment in the service sector has not increased to the same extent as production.

(ii) Workers in the tertiary sector do not produce goods.

(iii) Most of the workers in the organized sector enjoy job security.

(iv) A large proportion of laborers in India are working in the unorganized sector.

(v) Cotton is a natural product and cloth is a manufactured product.

(vi) The activities in primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors are interdependent.

2. Choose the most appropriate answer.

(a) The sectors are classified into public and private sectors on the basis of:

(i) Employment conditions 
(ii) the nature of economic activity 
(iii) ownership of enterprises 
(iv) number of workers employed in the enterprise

Answer-

(iii) ownership of enterprises

(b) Production of a commodity, mostly through the natural process, is an activity in _________ sector.

(i) primary 
(ii) secondary 
(iii) tertiary 
(iv) information technology

Answer-

(i) primary

(c) GDP is the total value of _________ produced during a particular year.

(i) all goods and services 
(ii) all final goods and services 
(iii) all intermediate goods and services 
(iv) all intermediate and final goods and services

Answer-

(ii) all final goods and services

(d) In terms of GDP the share of the tertiary sector in 2013-14 is between _________ per cent.

(i) 20 to 30 
(ii) 30 to 40 
(iii) 50 to 60 
(iv) 60 to 70

Answer-

(iii) 50 to 60

3. Match the following

Problems faced by the farming sector Some possible measures

1. Unirrigated land

(a) Setting up agro-based mills

2. Low prices for crops

(b) Cooperative marketing societies

3. Debt burden

(c) Procurement of food grains by the government

4. No job in the off-season

(d) Construction of canals by the government

5. Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest

(e) Banks to provide credit with low interest

Answer-

Problems faced by the farming sector Some possible measures

1. Unirrigated land

(d) Construction of canals by the government

2. Low prices for crops

(c) Procurement of food grains by government

3. Debt burden

(e) Banks to provide credit with low interest

4. No job in the off-season 

(a) Setting up agro-based mills

5. Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest

(b) Cooperative marketing societies

4. Find the odd one out and say why.

(i) Tourist guide, dhobi, tailor, potter

Answer-

Tourist guide

While the dhobi, tailor, and potter all have their own private businesses, the Tourist guide is selected by the government.

(ii) Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer

Answer-

Vegetable vendor

While the jobs of teacher, lawyer, and doctor fall under the tertiary sector, the vegetable vendor works in the primary sector.

(iii) Postman, cobbler, soldier, police constable

Answer-

Cobbler

While the occupation of a cobbler falls within the private sector, others are employed by the public sector.

(iv) MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, Jet Airways, All India Radio

Answer-

Jet Airways

A private firm owns Jet Airways, whereas the Indian government owns MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, and All India Radio.

5. A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Surat and found the following.

Place of Work Nature of Employment Percentage of working People

In offices and factories registered with the government

Organized 15

Own shops, offices, and clinics in marketplaces with formal license

15

People working on the street, construction workers, domestic workers

20

Working in small workshops usually not registered with the government

Complete the table. What is the percentage of workers in the unorganized sector in this city?

Answer-

Place of Work Nature of Employment Percentage of working People

In offices and factories registered with the government

Organized 15

Own shops, offices, and clinics in marketplaces with formal license

Organized 15

People working on the street, construction workers, domestic workers

Unorganized 20

Working in small workshops usually not registered with the government

Unorganized 50

6. Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary, and tertiary is useful? Explain how.

Answer-

Yes, classifying economic activities into primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors is helpful. It allows us to understand the different types of economic activities and their roles in the economy. It helps policymakers and researchers analyze the economy’s structure, employment, and development, and plan accordingly.

7. For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues that should be examined? Discuss.

Answer-

While employment and GDP are crucial indicators for each sector, they should not be the sole focus. It is important to consider other factors like income inequality, environmental sustainability, and social welfare to promote fair and sustainable development.

8. Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you doing for a living. In what way can you classify them? Explain your choice.

Answer-

Primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors are used to categorize the work that people do for a living. We may categorize the individuals around us based on their work sector using one of the three categories. Cleaning, farming, and selling vegetables are a few examples of primary sector activities. A secondary sector example is the production of goods. The tertiary sector includes industries including teaching, mining, finance, and transportation.

9. How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples.

Answer-

The tertiary sector differs from other sectors due to its focus on providing services rather than producing goods or extracting natural resources. Examples include banking, healthcare, education, tourism, and transportation. These sectors primarily involve offering intangible services that cater to the needs of individuals, businesses, and society.

10. What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas.

Answer-

Disguised unemployment refers to a situation where people appear to be employed but their actual contribution to productivity is minimal or unnecessary. In urban areas, an example could be a retail shop with more workers than needed, where removing some employees wouldn’t affect overall output. In rural areas, it could be seen in farming when more farmers work on a plot than necessary, and reducing their number wouldn’t impact the output. Disguised unemployment occurs when there are limited job options and excessive dependence on specific sectors, leading to inefficient labor utilization.

11. Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.

Answer-

Open unemployment refers to a situation where individuals are actively seeking work but are unable to find employment. Disguised unemployment, on the other hand, occurs when individuals are employed but their contribution to productivity is minimal or redundant.

12. “Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of the Indian economy.” Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer.

Answer-

No, I disagree that the tertiary sector has not made a significant contribution to the growth of the Indian economy, especially in the last two decades. Over the course of the last decade, the field of information technology has expanded, and as a result, the GDP share of the tertiary sector has increased from about 40% in 1973 to more than 50% in 2003.

13. Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these?

Answer-

The service sector in India employs two types of people: skilled professionals and unskilled or semi-skilled workers. Skilled professionals have specialized knowledge and qualifications, while unskilled or semi-skilled workers perform essential tasks that do not require extensive training. Both contribute to the functioning and growth of the service sector.

14. Workers are exploited in the unorganized sector. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer.

Answer-

Yes, I agree that workers in the unorganized sector often face exploitation. This is because they lack legal protection, receive low wages, work long hours without proper compensation, have limited bargaining power, and are not entitled to social security benefits. The informal nature of employment and exploitative practices further contribute to their vulnerability. Addressing these issues requires implementing robust labor laws, ensuring their enforcement, promoting workers’ rights, and facilitating the transition to the organized sector for better protections and fairer working conditions.

15. How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?

Answer-

The activities in the economy are classified based on employment conditions. This classification categorizes activities into organized sector and unorganized sectors. The organized sector refers to activities where workers have formal employment contracts, receive benefits, and are protected by labor laws. The unorganized sector includes activities where employment conditions are informal, with limited legal protections and benefits.

16. Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organized and unorganized sectors.

Answer-

Compare the employment conditions in the organized and unorganized sectors. The organized sector generally offers formal employment contracts, benefits, legal protections, and regulated working conditions. In contrast, the unorganized sector has informal employment arrangements, limited legal protections, and lacks benefits and regulation in terms of working conditions.

17. Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005.

Answer-

The objective of implementing the NREGA (National Rural Employment Guarantee Act) 2005 is to provide livelihood security and promote inclusive growth in rural areas of India. The act aims to guarantee at least 100 days of wage employment to every household in rural areas, focusing on providing employment opportunities for the rural poor. By creating a legal framework for rural employment, NREGA aims to alleviate poverty, reduce rural-urban migration, and enhance rural infrastructure development while ensuring social protection and empowerment of marginalized sections of society.

18. Using examples from your area compare and contrast the activities and functions of private and public sectors.

Answer-

Individuals own assets and industries in the private sector, whereas the government owns industries and firms in the public sector. The private sector works to make money, whereas the public sector strives to offer services to the public while also making money. Government banks, post offices, municipal hospitals, and Indian railroads are all frequent instances of the public sector. IT businesses, malls, and multiplexes are frequent examples of the private sector that we may see around us.

19. Discuss and fill the following table giving one example each from your area.

 

Well-Managed Organisation

Badly-Managed Organisation

Public Sector

 

 

Private Sector

 

 

Answer-

 

Well-Managed Organisation Badly-Managed Organisation
Public Sector

Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL)

Air India

Private Sector

Google LLC

Kingfisher Airlines

20. Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up.

Answer-

The government has taken up various public sector activities, such as healthcare, education, transportation, and infrastructure development. These activities aim to provide essential services to the public, ensure equitable access, promote social welfare, and address market failures where private sector involvement may be insufficient or inadequate.

21. Explain how the public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation.

Answer-

The public sector plays a crucial role in the economic development of a nation. It contributes by investing in infrastructure, providing essential services, promoting social welfare, creating employment opportunities, regulating industries, and addressing market failures. These efforts foster economic growth, improve living standards, and create a conducive environment for private sector development.

22. The workers in the unorganized sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety, and health. Explain with examples.

Answer-

Workers in the unorganized sector require protection in terms of wages, safety, and health. Regarding wages, they need fair and timely payment to ensure a decent livelihood. For example, implementing minimum wage laws and ensuring regular wage payments can safeguard their interests. In terms of safety, providing safety equipment and enforcing safety regulations can protect them from workplace hazards. Additionally, access to healthcare facilities, social security benefits, and schemes like affordable health insurance can address their health concerns and provide necessary support in times of emergencies.

23. A study in Ahmedabad found that out of 15,00,000 workers in the city, 11,00,000 worked in the unorganized sector. The total income of the city in this year (1997-1998) was Rs 60,000 million. Out of this Rs 32,000 million was generated in the organized sector. Present this data as a table. What kind of ways should be thought of for generating more employment in the city?

Answer-

Total Workers

Workers in the Unorganised Sector

Total Income of City (1997-1998)

Income generated by the organized sector

Income generated by the unorganized sector

15,00,000

11,00,000

60,000 million

32,000 million

28,000 million

The figure clearly illustrates that the money earned in the unorganized sector accounts for about half of Ahmedabad’s total income. More industries should be established to provide work prospects for the people, a good education should be offered to everyone, and proper public-sector amenities should be supplied to all.

24. The following table gives the GDP in Rupees (Crores) by the three sectors:

Year

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary
2000 52,000 48,500 1,33,500
2013 8,00,500 10,74,000 38,68,000

(i) Calculate the share of the three sectors in GDP for 2000 and 2013.

Answer-

In 2000
Primary sector = 22.22%
Secondary sector = 20.73% 
Tertiary sector = 57.04%

In 2013
Primary sector = 13.94%
Secondary sector = 18.70%
Tertiary sector = 67.36%

(ii) Show the data as a bar diagram similar to Graph 2 in the chapter.

Share of sectors in GDP

Share of sectors in GDP

(iii) What conclusions can we draw from the bar graph?

Answer-

The conclusion can be drawn from the bar graph that the share of the tertiary sector to GDP has increased by 10 percent while that of the primary sector is almost halved and the secondary sector has grown by 2 percent in the last 13 years.

Important Topics in the Chapter

  1. Sectors of Economic Activities
  2. Comparing the Three Sectors of the Economy
  3. Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sectors
  4. Division of Sectors as Organized and Unorganized
  5. Sectors in Terms of Ownership: Public and Private Sectors
  6. Gross Domestic Product
  7. How to Create More Employment
  8. Responsibility of the Government

FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 2

Q 1. Are NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 effective for the CBSE exam preparation?

Answer-

The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics can been prepared in such a way that each concept is designed in a more interactive manner following the conduct of various types of research and information that is provided for helping students remember the concepts with a flow for memorizing them more effectively and by some simple tricks and methods to remember.

Q 2. How can Chapter 2 of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics be prepared for the board exam?

Answer-

Students must go to the exercise-based questions at the conclusion of the chapter after reading it. Students can utilise the NCERT Solutions to learn how to answer questions. Students can utilise the solutions to study and practise the subjects on their own. The main purpose is to help students grasp the chapter and acquire new topics at their own pace.

Q 3. What are the important topics discussed in the chapter?

Answer-

  1. Sectors of Economic Activities
  2. Comparing the Three Sectors of the Economy
  3. Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sectors
  4. Division of Sectors as Organized and Unorganized
  5. Sectors in Terms of Ownership: Public and Private Sectors
  6. Gross Domestic Product
  7. How to Create More Employment
  8. Responsibility of the Government


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