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Cause and Effect: Logical Reasoning Questions and Answers

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Cause and Effect Reasoning Section is one of the most tricky topics of Logical Reasoning section. The questions which come in this section are very easy in nature but they are designed in such a way that they are tricky. Candidates often get confused while solving these problems. It is asked in many government competitive examinations such as UPSC, SSC, Banking, RBI grade B, SBI, etc. Therefore this makes this section very important for the candidates to go through. 

In the following article, we are going to cover the key concepts of the cause and effect in logical reasoning section along with the solved examples, practice questions and tips and tricks of the section. Before moving further let’s go through some of the basic concepts of cause and effect.

What are the Cause and their Effect?

Cause and effect are complementary to each other as the cause occurs so it’s an effect. In reasoning, a cause event often leads to a negative or positive event. Questions are designed to test the analytical and logical ability of a candidate. So, in short, A cause is the logical and or scientific reasoning of an event that has occurred and the effects of this cause are consequences of the event.  

For every question, there will be two statements and students have to decide whether the cause is independent or a common cause and its effect. For a cause to be valid it must be sufficient or necessary. The necessary condition for an event to occur is a cause, which supplements an event to occur. Necessary conditions for an event to take place is the condition without which the event will not occur.

 

From the above image, it’s clear that if the application is slow then the effect and causes are many for the application to be slow.

Types of Causes : 

1) Immediate cause:

An immediate cause is a type of cause that has occurred immediately. It immediately precedes the effect. In other words, immediate causes are the most proximate in time to the effect.

Example:

Suppose a driver is driving his car. He was drunk and he crashed his car and died. 
The immediate cause was the death due to the crash while the proximate cause was the drink taken.

2) Principal  cause:

The principal cause is the main cause responsible for any event. An immediate cause may or may not be the principal cause. The principal cause is the main reason behind its effectiveness.

Example:

Rohit does not study therefore he failed in exams.
Here, failure is the effect and the cause here is not studying. 
Failing is the principal cause here.

3) Independent cause:

This is the cause related to any independent events in the question. Independent causes do not have a direct or indirect relationship with the effect given. The effect in the case may be caused by a third unmentioned event.

Example:

I was tired of working all day so I went to bed early. 
Here, working all day is the cause, and going to bed early is the effect but working all day is an independent cause.

Tips and Tricks to solve Cause and Effect Reasoning Questions :

  • Principal and immediate cause have a similarity but there is a slight difference in that principal cause is the main cause while the immediate cause is the proximate with its effect.
  • If both events are in the present perfect tense, then it cannot be decided which can be antecedent to whom. Then candidates have to check for any common connection between the statements.
  • If the first statement is in the present perfect tense and statement two in the future tense, then statement 1 will be antecedent to statement 2 and that is why statement 2 cannot be the cause of statement 1.
  • If the first statement is in present perfect and statement two in present continuous, then statement 1 should have occurred before statement 2 and that is why statement 2 cannot be the cause of statement 2.

Cause and Effect: Reasoning Questions and Answers

Directions: Solve the following Cause and Effect Reasoning Questions by choosing the correct option:

Q1. Statement 1: The company has decided to increase the salary of its employees. 
         Statement 2: The employees threatened to go on a strike if their demands for a salary hike           were not met. 

a. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect 
b. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect 
c. Both the statements I and II are independent causes 
d. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes 
e. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Answer: a. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

Q2. Statement 1: The government has imposed a fine on people who litter in public places. 
         Statement 2: The cleanliness of public places has improved significantly in the recent past. 

a. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect 
b. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect 
c. Both the statements I and II are independent causes 
d. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes 
e. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Answer: a. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

Q3. Statement 1: The use of plastic bags has been banned in the city. 
         Statement 2: The pollution levels in the city have decreased in the recent past. 

a. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect 
b. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect 
c. Both the statements I and II are independent causes 
d. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes 
e. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Answer: a. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

Q4. Statement 1: The prices of petrol and diesel have increased in the country. 
          Statement 2: The inflation rate has gone up in the recent past. 

a. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect 
b. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect 
c. Both the statements I and II are independent causes 
d. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes 
e. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Answer: a. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

Q5. Statement 1: The government has announced a reduction in the interest rates. 
         Statement 2: The number of people taking loans has increased in the recent past. 

a. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect 
b. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect 
c. Both the statements I and II are independent causes 
d. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes 
e. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Answer: a. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

Q6. Statement 1: The sales of smartphones have increased significantly in the recent past. 
         Statement 2: The use of social media platforms has also increased significantly in the recent past. 

a. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect 
b. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect 
c. Both the statements I and II are independent causes 
d. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes 
e. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Answer: e. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Q7. Statement 1: A new law was passed to increase the penalties for drunk driving. 
         Statement 2: The number of drunk driving accidents has decreased significantly in the past year. 

a. Statement 1 is the cause and statement 2 is its effect b. 
Statement 2 is the cause and statement 1 is its effect 
c. Both the statements 1 and 2 are independent causes 
d. Both the statements 1 and 2 are effects of independent causes 
e. Both the statements 1 and 2 are effects of some common cause

Answer: a. Statement 1 is the cause and statement 2 is its effect

Q8. Statement 1: A new fitness program was introduced at the company. 
         Statement 2: The number of sick days taken by employees has decreased. 

a. Statement 1 is the cause and statement 2 is its effect 
b. Statement 2 is the cause and statement 1 is its effect 
c. Both the statements 1 and 2 are independent causes 
d. Both the statements 1 and 2 are effects of independent causes 
e. Both the statements 1 and 2 are effects of some common cause

Answer: a. Statement 1 is the cause and statement 2 is its effect

Q9. Statement 1: The factory was shut down due to environmental concerns. 
         Statement 2: The unemployment rate in the city increased. 

a. Statement 1 is the cause and statement 2 is its effect 
b. Statement 2 is the cause and statement 1 is its effect 
c. Both the statements 1 and 2 are independent causes 
d. Both the statements 1 and 2 are effects of independent causes 
e. Both the statements 1 and 2 are effects of some common cause

Answer: a. Statement 1 is the cause and statement 2 is its effect

Q10. Statement 1: The company increased salaries of its employees. 
            Statement 2: The productivity of the employees increased. 

a. Statement 1 is the cause and statement 2 is its effect 
b. Statement 2 is the cause and statement 1 is its effect 
c. Both the statements 1 and 2 are independent causes 
d. Both the statements 1 and 2 are effects of independent causes 
e. Both the statements 1 and 2 are effects of some common cause

Answer: a. Statement 1 is the cause and statement 2 is its effect

Frequently Asked Questions on Cause and Effect : 

Q1. What is the cause and its effect?

Answer:

The cause is the logical or scientific reason for an event that has occurred, and the effects of this cause are the consequences of the event. For more go through the article above to find out the key concepts regarding the Cause & Effects.

Q2. How many types of cause and effect questions are there?

Answer: 

The types of Cause and Effect questions that come up in various government exams are given above in the article. Kindly go through the article for the same.

Q3. Where I will get the tips and tricks for the cause and effect reasoning section?

Answer: 

Some of the tips are discussed in the article.

Q4. In which exams do cause and effect come up?

Answer: 

Prestigious exams like UPSC, SSC, Bank, Defense, etc.



Last Updated : 18 Apr, 2023
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