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Assertion and Reason Questions- Logical Reasoning

Last Updated : 30 Jan, 2024
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In logical reasoning, “Assertion and Reason” are tools used to evaluate statements and their justifications. Assertions are statements, and reasons explain them. Together, they help determine if a statement is logically supported.

In this study of Assertion and Reason, you’ll explore how they work to assess arguments and statement reliability. You’ll learn techniques to analyze the link between ass

Assertions and their reasons, improving our critical thinking. This article is beneficial for students, professionals, or anyone wanting to evaluate statements and arguments effectively. In this article We have discussed many assertion and reason reasoning questions with explanation and also how to take those reasoning questions

Assertion and Reason Questions- Logical Reasoning

Assertion And Reason Meaning

Assertion and Reason is the essential part of verbal reasoning. In general, An Assertion and reason is an affirmation, a declaration or a strong statement. Normally, in logical reasoning assertions have reasons. 

In simple words, Assertion is the statement of fact and Reason is the explanation for the given assertion.

Also Check: Logical reasoning Practice questions

The Reasoning question in Assertion and reason follows mostly five alternatives. The pattern going to be like the following:

  1. Both the statements: assertion-reason are true, and the reason provided is the right explanation for the assertion statement.
  2. Both the statements: assertion-reason are true, but the reason which is provided is not correct and does not apply to the assertion statement.
  3. The assertion statement is true, but the reason is incorrect.
  4. The reason is true, but the assertion is incorrect.
  5. Both assertion and reason statements are completely false.

Also Check: Number Series: Practice, Tricks and more

How To Solve Assertion And Reasoning Questions?

The following ways are efficient way of solving assertion and reason problems:

1. Understand the Question clearly: Before going to solve the question, you must have the Idea about What is exactly the question. thinking about the problems deeply gives you and Idea about how can solve those problems.

2. Think about each Statement Individually : Break the questions and evaluate each of the statements individually in order to solve those questions.

3. Rule Out the False Options: cutting off the false option is one one of the best way to solve assertion and reason problems.

Also Check: Statements and Arguments: Logical reasoning

Things To Consider While Solving Assertion And Reasoning Problems

Here are some things to consider while addressing assertion and reasoning questions:

Understand The Statements:

Clearly understand both the assertion and reasoning statements. Break down the information provided and identify the core elements of each statement.

Independently Assess The Assertion And Reasoning:

Evaluate the truth of the assertion independent of the reasoning statement. Determine if the assertion is true or false based on your existing knowledge.

Examine The Reasoning Statement:

Evaluate the reasoning statement independently. Check if the reasoning provides a logical explanation or justification for the assertion.

Check For Correctness And Relevance:

Ensure that both the assertion and reasoning statements are correct and relevant to the given context. An accurate assertion with an incorrect or irrelevant reasoning does not form a valid explanation.

Avoid Assumptions:

Do not make assumptions beyond the information provided. Base your evaluation solely on the information given in the assertion and reasoning statements.

Consider Scientific Principles:

For questions related to scientific concepts, apply scientific principles and theories to validate or invalidate the assertion and reasoning.

Examine Cause-And-Effect Relationships:

Analyze if there is a logical cause-and-effect relationship between the assertion and reasoning. Determine if the reasoning adequately supports the assertion.

Also Check: Logical Games: Logical reasoning question and answers

Assertion and Reason – Solved Examples

Example 1:

Assertion (A): Birds have feathers.

Reason (R): Feathers help birds to fly.

Options:

  • A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • B – Both A and R are true, but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
  • C – A is true, but R is false.
  • D – A is false, but R is true.

Answer: A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.

Explanation: Both the assertion and reason are true. Feathers indeed help birds fly, as they provide lift and control during flight.

Example 2:

Assertion (A): The Earth orbits the Sun.

Reason (R): The Sun is much larger than the Earth.

Options:

  • A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • B – Both A and R are true, but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
  • C – A is true, but R is false.
  • D – A is false, but R is true.

Answer: A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.

Explanation: Both the assertion and reason are true. The Earth’s orbit around the Sun is due to the Sun’s gravitational pull, which is possible because the Sun is much larger than the Earth.

Example 3:

Assertion (A): Plants conduct photosynthesis.

Reason (R): Photosynthesis is essential for plant growth.

Options:

  • A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • B – Both A and R are true, but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
  • C – A is true, but R is false.
  • D – A is false, but R is true.

Answer: A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.

Explanation: Both the assertion and reason are true. Photosynthesis is a vital process for plant growth and involves the conversion of sunlight into energy.

Example 4:

Assertion (A): Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius at sea level.

Reason (R): Atmospheric pressure affects the boiling point of water.

Options:

  • A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • B – Both A and R are true, but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
  • C – A is true, but R is false.
  • D – A is false, but R is true.

Answer: A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.

Explanation: Both the assertion and reason are true. The boiling point of water varies with changes in atmospheric pressure, and at sea level, it boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

Example 5:

Assertion (A): Oxygen is necessary for combustion.

Reason (R): Combustion is a chemical reaction involving the release of energy.

Options:

  • A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • B – Both A and R are true, but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
  • C – A is true, but R is false.
  • D – A is false, but R is true.

Answer: A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.

Explanation: Both the assertion and reason are true. Oxygen is a crucial component of combustion, which is indeed a chemical reaction releasing energy.

Example 6:

Assertion (A): Metal objects expand when heated.

Reason (R): Heating increases the kinetic energy of metal atoms.

Options:

  • A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • B – Both A and R are true, but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
  • C – A is true, but R is false.
  • D – A is false, but R is true.

Answer: A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.

Explanation: Both the assertion and reason are true. Heating metal objects increases the kinetic energy of their atoms, causing expansion.

Example 7:

Assertion (A): The Moon has gravitational pull.

Reason (R): Gravity is a fundamental force of nature.

Options:

  • A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • B – Both A and R are true, but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
  • C – A is true, but R is false.
  • D – A is false, but R is true.

Answer: A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.

Explanation: Both the assertion and reason are true. The Moon’s gravitational pull is due to the fundamental force of gravity.

Example 8:

Assertion (A): Sound travels faster in solids than in gases.

Reason (R): Solids have a higher density than gases.

Options:

  • A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • B – Both A and R are true, but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
  • C – A is true, but R is false.
  • D – A is false, but R is true.

Answer: A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.

Explanation: Both the assertion and reason are true. Sound travels faster in denser materials, such as solids, due to the closer arrangement of particles.

Example 9:

Assertion (A): Adding salt to water lowers its freezing point.

Reason (R): Salt disrupts the formation of ice crystals in water.

Options:

  • A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • B – Both A and R are true, but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
  • C – A is true, but R is false.
  • D – A is false, but R is true.

Answer: A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.

Explanation: Both the assertion and reason are true. Adding salt lowers the freezing point of water by interfering with the formation of ice crystals.

Example 10:

Assertion (A): Human beings require oxygen to survive.

Reason (R): Oxygen is essential for cellular respiration, which produces energy.

Options:

  • A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • B – Both A and R are true, but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
  • C – A is true, but R is false.
  • D – A is false, but R is true.

Answer: A – Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.

Explanation: Both the assertion and reason are true. Humans require oxygen for cellular respiration, a process that produces energy necessary for survival.

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