# Find the Number Occurring Odd Number of Times

Given an array of positive integers. All numbers occur an even number of times except one number which occurs an odd number of times. Find the number in O(n) time & constant space.

Examples :

Input : arr = {1, 2, 3, 2, 3, 1, 3}
Output : 3

Input : arr = {5, 7, 2, 7, 5, 2, 5}
Output : 5

Recommended Practice

## Find the Number Occurring Odd Number of Times using Nested Loop:

A Simple Solution is to run two nested loops. The outer loop picks all elements one by one and the inner loop counts the number of occurrences of the element picked by the outer loop.

Below is the implementation of the brute force approach :

## C++

 `// C++ program to find the element ` `// occurring odd number of times` `#include` `using` `namespace` `std;`   `// Function to find the element ` `// occurring odd number of times` `int` `getOddOccurrence(``int` `arr[], ``int` `arr_size)` `{` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < arr_size; i++) {` `        `  `        ``int` `count = 0;` `        `  `        ``for` `(``int` `j = 0; j < arr_size; j++)` `        ``{` `            ``if` `(arr[i] == arr[j])` `                ``count++;` `        ``}` `        ``if` `(count % 2 != 0)` `            ``return` `arr[i];` `    ``}` `    ``return` `-1;` `}`   `// driver code` `int` `main()` `    ``{` `        ``int` `arr[] = { 2, 3, 5, 4, 5, 2,` `                      ``4, 3, 5, 2, 4, 4, 2 };` `        ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr) / ``sizeof``(arr[0]);`   `        ``// Function calling` `        ``cout << getOddOccurrence(arr, n);`   `        ``return` `0;` `    ``}`

## Java

 `// Java program to find the element occurring` `// odd number of times` `class` `OddOccurrence {` `    `  `    ``// function to find the element occurring odd` `    ``// number of times` `    ``static` `int` `getOddOccurrence(``int` `arr[], ``int` `arr_size)` `    ``{` `        ``int` `i;` `        ``for` `(i = ``0``; i < arr_size; i++) {` `            ``int` `count = ``0``;` `            ``for` `(``int` `j = ``0``; j < arr_size; j++) {` `                ``if` `(arr[i] == arr[j])` `                    ``count++;` `            ``}` `            ``if` `(count % ``2` `!= ``0``)` `                ``return` `arr[i];` `        ``}` `        ``return` `-``1``;` `    ``}` `    `  `    ``// driver code ` `    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)` `    ``{` `        ``int` `arr[] = ``new` `int``[]{ ``2``, ``3``, ``5``, ``4``, ``5``, ``2``, ``4``, ``3``, ``5``, ``2``, ``4``, ``4``, ``2` `};` `        ``int` `n = arr.length;` `        ``System.out.println(getOddOccurrence(arr, n));` `    ``}` `}` `// This code has been contributed by Kamal Rawal`

## Python3

 `# Python program to find the element occurring` `# odd number of times` `    `  `# function to find the element occurring odd` `# number of times` `def` `getOddOccurrence(arr, arr_size):` `    `  `    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``0``,arr_size):` `        ``count ``=` `0` `        ``for` `j ``in` `range``(``0``, arr_size):` `            ``if` `arr[i] ``=``=` `arr[j]:` `                ``count``+``=``1` `            `  `        ``if` `(count ``%` `2` `!``=` `0``):` `            ``return` `arr[i]` `        `  `    ``return` `-``1` `    `  `    `  `# driver code ` `arr ``=` `[``2``, ``3``, ``5``, ``4``, ``5``, ``2``, ``4``, ``3``, ``5``, ``2``, ``4``, ``4``, ``2` `]` `n ``=` `len``(arr)` `print``(getOddOccurrence(arr, n))`   `# This code has been contributed by ` `# Smitha Dinesh Semwal`

## C#

 `// C# program to find the element ` `// occurring odd number of times` `using` `System;`   `class` `GFG` `{` `    ``// Function to find the element ` `    ``// occurring odd number of times` `    ``static` `int` `getOddOccurrence(``int` `[]arr, ``int` `arr_size)` `    ``{` `        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < arr_size; i++) {` `            ``int` `count = 0;` `            `  `            ``for` `(``int` `j = 0; j < arr_size; j++) {` `                ``if` `(arr[i] == arr[j])` `                    ``count++;` `            ``}` `            ``if` `(count % 2 != 0)` `                ``return` `arr[i];` `        ``}` `        ``return` `-1;` `    ``}` `    `  `    ``// Driver code ` `    ``public` `static` `void` `Main()` `    ``{` `        ``int` `[]arr = { 2, 3, 5, 4, 5, 2, 4, 3, 5, 2, 4, 4, 2 };` `        ``int` `n = arr.Length;` `        ``Console.Write(getOddOccurrence(arr, n));` `    ``}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by Sam007 `

## Javascript

 ``

## PHP

 ``

Output :

```5
```

Time Complexity: O(n^2)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)

## Find the Number Occurring Odd Number of Times using Hashing:

A Better Solution is to use Hashing. Use array elements as a key and their counts as values. Create an empty hash table. One by one traverse the given array elements and store counts.

Below is the implementation of the above approch:

## C++

 `// C++ program to find the element  ` `// occurring odd number of times ` `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std;`   `// function to find the element ` `// occurring odd number of times ` `int` `getOddOccurrence(``int` `arr[],``int` `size)` `{` `    `  `    ``// Defining HashMap in C++` `    ``unordered_map<``int``, ``int``> hash;`   `    ``// Putting all elements into the HashMap ` `    ``for``(``int` `i = 0; i < size; i++)` `    ``{` `        ``hash[arr[i]]++;` `    ``}` `    ``// Iterate through HashMap to check an element` `    ``// occurring odd number of times and return it` `    ``for``(``auto` `i : hash)` `    ``{` `        ``if``(i.second % 2 != 0)` `        ``{` `            ``return` `i.first;` `        ``}` `    ``}` `    ``return` `-1;` `}`   `// Driver code` `int` `main() ` `{ ` `    ``int` `arr[] = { 2, 3, 5, 4, 5, 2, 4,` `                    ``3, 5, 2, 4, 4, 2 }; ` `    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr) / ``sizeof``(arr[0]); ` `    `  `    ``// Function calling ` `    ``cout << getOddOccurrence(arr, n); `   `    ``return` `0; ` `} `   `// This code is contributed by codeMan_d.`

## Java

 `// Java program to find the element occurring odd ` `// number of times` `import` `java.io.*;` `import` `java.util.HashMap;`   `class` `OddOccurrence ` `{` `    ``// function to find the element occurring odd` `    ``// number of times` `    ``static` `int` `getOddOccurrence(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n)` `    ``{` `        ``HashMap hmap = ``new` `HashMap<>();` `        `  `        ``// Putting all elements into the HashMap` `        ``for``(``int` `i = ``0``; i < n; i++)` `        ``{` `            ``if``(hmap.containsKey(arr[i]))` `            ``{` `                ``int` `val = hmap.get(arr[i]);` `                        `  `                ``// If array element is already present then` `                ``// increase the count of that element.` `                ``hmap.put(arr[i], val + ``1``); ` `            ``}` `            ``else` `                `  `                ``// if array element is not present then put` `                ``// element into the HashMap and initialize ` `                ``// the count to one.` `                ``hmap.put(arr[i], ``1``); ` `        ``}`   `        ``// Checking for odd occurrence of each element present` `        ``// in the HashMap ` `        ``for``(Integer a:hmap.keySet())` `        ``{` `            ``if``(hmap.get(a) % ``2` `!= ``0``)` `                ``return` `a;` `        ``}` `        ``return` `-``1``;` `    ``}` `        `  `    ``// driver code    ` `    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args) ` `    ``{` `        ``int` `arr[] = ``new` `int``[]{``2``, ``3``, ``5``, ``4``, ``5``, ``2``, ``4``, ``3``, ``5``, ``2``, ``4``, ``4``, ``2``};` `        ``int` `n = arr.length;` `        ``System.out.println(getOddOccurrence(arr, n));` `    ``}` `}` `// This code is contributed by Kamal Rawal`

## Python3

 `# Python3 program to find the element  ` `# occurring odd number of times ` ` `  `# function to find the element ` `# occurring odd number of times ` `def` `getOddOccurrence(arr,size):` `     `  `    ``# Defining HashMap in C++` `    ``Hash``=``dict``()` ` `  `    ``# Putting all elements into the HashMap ` `    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(size):` `        ``Hash``[arr[i]]``=``Hash``.get(arr[i],``0``) ``+` `1``;` `    `  `    ``# Iterate through HashMap to check an element` `    ``# occurring odd number of times and return it` `    ``for` `i ``in` `Hash``:`   `        ``if``(``Hash``[i]``%` `2` `!``=` `0``):` `            ``return` `i` `    ``return` `-``1`   ` `  `# Driver code` `arr``=``[``2``, ``3``, ``5``, ``4``, ``5``, ``2``, ``4``,``3``, ``5``, ``2``, ``4``, ``4``, ``2``]` `n ``=` `len``(arr)` ` `  `# Function calling ` `print``(getOddOccurrence(arr, n)) `   `# This code is contributed by mohit kumar`

## C#

 `// C# program to find the element occurring odd ` `// number of times` `using` `System;` `using` `System.Collections.Generic; `   `public` `class` `OddOccurrence ` `{` `    ``// function to find the element occurring odd` `    ``// number of times` `    ``static` `int` `getOddOccurrence(``int` `[]arr, ``int` `n)` `    ``{` `        ``Dictionary<``int``,``int``> hmap = ``new` `Dictionary<``int``,``int``>();` `        `  `        ``// Putting all elements into the HashMap` `        ``for``(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)` `        ``{` `            ``if``(hmap.ContainsKey(arr[i]))` `            ``{` `                ``int` `val = hmap[arr[i]];` `                        `  `                ``// If array element is already present then` `                ``// increase the count of that element.` `                ``hmap.Remove(arr[i]);` `                ``hmap.Add(arr[i], val + 1); ` `            ``}` `            ``else` `                `  `                ``// if array element is not present then put` `                ``// element into the HashMap and initialize ` `                ``// the count to one.` `                ``hmap.Add(arr[i], 1); ` `        ``}`   `        ``// Checking for odd occurrence of each element present` `        ``// in the HashMap ` `        ``foreach``(KeyValuePair<``int``, ``int``> entry ``in` `hmap)` `        ``{` `            ``if``(entry.Value % 2 != 0)` `            ``{` `                ``return` `entry.Key;` `            ``}` `        ``}` `        ``return` `-1;` `    ``}` `        `  `    ``// Driver code ` `    ``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args) ` `    ``{` `        ``int` `[]arr = ``new` `int``[]{2, 3, 5, 4, 5, 2, 4, 3, 5, 2, 4, 4, 2};` `        ``int` `n = arr.Length;` `        ``Console.WriteLine(getOddOccurrence(arr, n));` `    ``}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by Princi Singh`

## Javascript

 ``

Output :

```5
```

Time Complexity: O(n)
Auxiliary Space: O(n)

## Find the Number Occurring Odd Number of Times using Bit Manipulation:

The Best Solution is to do bitwise XOR of all the elements. XOR of all elements gives us odd occurring elements.

```Here ^ is the XOR operators;
Note :
x^0 = x
x^y=y^x (Commutative property holds)
(x^y)^z = x^(y^z) (Distributive property holds)
x^x=0
```

Below is the implementation of the above approach.

## C++

 `// C++ program to find the element` `// occurring odd number of times` `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std;`   `// Function to find element occurring` `// odd number of times` `int` `getOddOccurrence(``int` `ar[], ``int` `ar_size)` `{` `    ``int` `res = 0; ` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < ar_size; i++)     ` `        ``res = res ^ ar[i];` `    `  `    ``return` `res;` `}`   `/* Driver function to test above function */` `int` `main()` `{` `    ``int` `ar[] = {2, 3, 5, 4, 5, 2, 4, 3, 5, 2, 4, 4, 2};` `    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(ar)/``sizeof``(ar[0]);` `    `  `    ``// Function calling` `    ``cout << getOddOccurrence(ar, n);` `    `  `    ``return` `0;` `}`

## C

 `// C program to find the element` `// occurring odd number of times` `#include `   `// Function to find element occurring` `// odd number of times` `int` `getOddOccurrence(``int` `ar[], ``int` `ar_size)` `{` `    ``int` `res = 0; ` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < ar_size; i++)     ` `        ``res = res ^ ar[i];` `    `  `    ``return` `res;` `}`   `/* Driver function to test above function */` `int` `main()` `{` `    ``int` `ar[] = {2, 3, 5, 4, 5, 2, 4, 3, 5, 2, 4, 4, 2};` `    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(ar) / ``sizeof``(ar[0]);` `    `  `    ``// Function calling` `    ``printf``(``"%d"``, getOddOccurrence(ar, n));` `    ``return` `0;` `}`

## Java

 `//Java program to find the element occurring odd number of times`   `class` `OddOccurrence ` `{` `    ``int` `getOddOccurrence(``int` `ar[], ``int` `ar_size) ` `    ``{` `        ``int` `i;` `        ``int` `res = ``0``;` `        ``for` `(i = ``0``; i < ar_size; i++) ` `        ``{` `            ``res = res ^ ar[i];` `        ``}` `        ``return` `res;` `    ``}`   `    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args) ` `    ``{` `        ``OddOccurrence occur = ``new` `OddOccurrence();` `        ``int` `ar[] = ``new` `int``[]{``2``, ``3``, ``5``, ``4``, ``5``, ``2``, ``4``, ``3``, ``5``, ``2``, ``4``, ``4``, ``2``};` `        ``int` `n = ar.length;` `        ``System.out.println(occur.getOddOccurrence(ar, n));` `    ``}` `}` `// This code has been contributed by Mayank Jaiswal`

## Python3

 `# Python program to find the element occurring odd number of times`   `def` `getOddOccurrence(arr):`   `    ``# Initialize result` `    ``res ``=` `0` `    `  `    ``# Traverse the array` `    ``for` `element ``in` `arr:` `        ``# XOR with the result` `        ``res ``=` `res ^ element`   `    ``return` `res`   `# Test array` `arr ``=` `[ ``2``, ``3``, ``5``, ``4``, ``5``, ``2``, ``4``, ``3``, ``5``, ``2``, ``4``, ``4``, ``2``]`   `print``(``"%d"` `%` `getOddOccurrence(arr))`

## C#

 `// C# program to find the element` `// occurring odd number of times` `using` `System;`   `class` `GFG` `{` `    ``// Function to find the element ` `    ``// occurring odd number of times` `    ``static` `int` `getOddOccurrence(``int` `[]arr, ``int` `arr_size)` `    ``{` `        ``int` `res = 0;` `        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < arr_size; i++) ` `        ``{` `            ``res = res ^ arr[i];` `        ``}` `        ``return` `res;` `    ``}` `    `  `    ``// Driver code` `    ``public` `static` `void` `Main()` `    ``{` `        ``int` `[]arr = { 2, 3, 5, 4, 5, 2, 4, 3, 5, 2, 4, 4, 2 };` `        ``int` `n = arr.Length;` `        ``Console.Write(getOddOccurrence(arr, n));` `    ``}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by Sam007`

## Javascript

 ``

## PHP

 ``

Output :

```5
```

Time Complexity: O(n)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)

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