A STL based simple implementation of BFS using queue and vector in STL. The adjacency list is represented using vectors of vector.

In BFS, we start with a node. 1) Create a queue and enqueue source into it. Mark source as visited. 2) While queue is not empty, do following a) Dequeue a vertex from queue. Let this be f. b) Print f c) Enqueue all not yet visited adjacent of f and mark them visited.

Below is an example BFS starting from source vertex 1. Note that there can be multple BFSs possible for a graph (even from a particular vertex).

For more details of BFS, refer this post .

The code here is simplified such that it could be used in competitive coding.

`// A Quick implementation of BFS using` `// vectors and queue` `#include <bits/stdc++.h>` `#define pb push_back` ` ` `using` `namespace` `std;` ` ` `vector<` `bool` `> v;` `vector<vector<` `int` `> > g;` ` ` `void` `edge(` `int` `a, ` `int` `b)` `{` ` ` `g[a].pb(b);` ` ` ` ` `// for undirected graph add this line` ` ` `// g[b].pb(a);` `}` ` ` `void` `bfs(` `int` `u)` `{` ` ` `queue<` `int` `> q;` ` ` ` ` `q.push(u);` ` ` `v[u] = ` `true` `;` ` ` ` ` `while` `(!q.empty()) {` ` ` ` ` `int` `f = q.front();` ` ` `q.pop();` ` ` ` ` `cout << f << ` `" "` `;` ` ` ` ` `// Enqueue all adjacent of f and mark them visited ` ` ` `for` `(` `auto` `i = g[f].begin(); i != g[f].end(); i++) {` ` ` `if` `(!v[*i]) {` ` ` `q.push(*i);` ` ` `v[*i] = ` `true` `;` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` `}` ` ` `// Driver code` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `int` `n, e;` ` ` `cin >> n >> e;` ` ` ` ` `v.assign(n, ` `false` `);` ` ` `g.assign(n, vector<` `int` `>());` ` ` ` ` `int` `a, b;` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0; i < e; i++) {` ` ` `cin >> a >> b;` ` ` `edge(a, b);` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0; i < n; i++) {` ` ` `if` `(!v[i])` ` ` `bfs(i);` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `return` `0;` `}` |

Input: 8 10 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 1 5 2 5 3 6 4 6 5 7 6 7 Output: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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