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Zoho Interview Questions and Answers for Technical Profiles

Last Updated : 12 Mar, 2024
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ZOHO is a leading global technology company with over 10,000 employees worldwide. The company offers a variety of technical roles in areas such as software engineering, data science, and IT infrastructure.

ZOHO interviews for technical profiles can be challenging, but with the right preparation, you can increase your chances of success. This article provides a list of common ZOHO technical interview questions and answers, covering topics such as Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), Java, C++, Database Management Systems (DBMS), and more. By reviewing this information, you can gain a better understanding of what to expect and be well-prepared to answer any questions that the interviewer may ask.

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1. Explain Bubble Sort
Bubble Sort is the simplest sorting algorithm that works by repeatedly swapping the adjacent elements if they are in the wrong order.

2. What is a Hashing?
Hashing is a technique or process of mapping keys, and values into the hash table by using a hash function

3. What is a Recursion?
The process in which a function calls itself directly or indirectly is called recursion and the corresponding function is called a recursive function

4. Difference Between throw and throws in Java

S. No.

Key Difference

throw

throws

1. Point of Usage The throw keyword is used inside a function. It is used when it is required to throw an Exception logically. The throws keyword is used in the function signature. It is used when the function has some statements that can lead to exceptions.
2. Exceptions Thrown The throw keyword is used to throw an exception explicitly. It can throw only one exception at a time. The throws keyword can be used to declare multiple exceptions, separated by a comma. Whichever exception occurs, if matched with the declared ones, is thrown automatically then.
3. Syntax Syntax of throw keyword includes the instance of the Exception to be thrown. Syntax wise throw keyword is followed by the instance variable. Syntax of throws keyword includes the class names of the Exceptions to be thrown. Syntax wise throws keyword is followed by exception class names.
4. Propagation of Exceptions throw keyword cannot propagate checked exceptions. It is only used to propagate the unchecked Exceptions that are not checked using the throws keyword.  throws keyword is used to propagate the checked Exceptions only. 

5. What is a constructor in C++?
Constructor in C++ is a special method that is invoked automatically at the time of object creation. Constructors do not return value, hence they do not have a return type.

6. Differences between TCP and UDP
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) both are protocols of the Transport Layer. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol as UDP is a part of the Internet Protocol suite, referred to as the UDP/IP suite. Unlike TCP, it is an unreliable and connectionless protocol.

7. Pointers vs References in C++

  • Pointers: A pointer is a variable that holds the memory address of another variable. A pointer needs to be dereferenced with the * operator to access the memory location it points to. 
  • References: A reference variable is an alias, that is, another name for an already existing variable. A reference, like a pointer, is also implemented by storing the address of an object. 

8. Virtual Function in C++
A virtual function (also known as virtual methods) is a member function that is declared within a base class and is re-defined (overridden) by a derived class. When you refer to a derived class object using a pointer or a reference to the base class, you can call a virtual function for that object and execute the derived class’s version of the method.

9. Friend Class and Function in C++
A friend class can access private and protected members of other classes in which it is declared as a friend. It is sometimes useful to allow a particular class to access private and protected members of other classes.

10. Difference between Abstraction and Encapsulation in Java with Examples

Abstraction Encapsulation
Abstraction is the process or method of gaining the information. While encapsulation is the process or method to contain the information.
In abstraction, problems are solved at the design or interface level. While in encapsulation, problems are solved at the implementation level.
Abstraction is the method of hiding the unwanted information. Whereas encapsulation is a method to hide the data in a single entity or unit along with a method to protect information from outside.
We can implement abstraction using abstract class and interfaces. Whereas encapsulation can be implemented using by access modifier i.e. private, protected and public.
In abstraction, implementation complexities are hidden using abstract classes and interfaces. While in encapsulation, the data is hidden using methods of getters and setters.

11.ArrayList vs LinkedList in Java

  • ArrayList is a part of the collection framework. It is present in the java.util package and provides us dynamic arrays in Java. Though, it may be slower than standard arrays but can be helpful in programs where lots of manipulation in the array is needed.
  • LinkedList is a linear data structure where the elements are not stored in contiguous locations and every element is a separate object with a data part and an address part. 

12. What are the OOP concepts?
As the name suggests, Object-Oriented Programming or OOPs refers to languages that use objects in programming. Object-oriented programming aims to implement real-world entities like inheritance, hiding, polymorphism, etc. in programming. 

13. What is Join? 
An SQL Join is used to combine data from two or more tables, based on a common field between them. For example, consider the following two tables.

14. What is a Trigger? 
A Trigger is a code associated with insert, update, or delete operations. The code is executed automatically whenever the associated query is executed on a table. Triggers can be useful to maintain integrity in the database. 

15. What is a transaction? What are ACID properties? 
A Database Transaction is a set of database operations that must be treated as a whole, which means either all operations are executed or none of them. An example can be a bank transaction from one account to another account. Either both debit and credit operations must be executed or none of them. ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that database transactions are processed reliably. 

16. Explain the firewalls?
A firewall is used to protect the internal network from the external attack, it prevents external users from accessing the internal information.

17. What is denormalization?
Denormalization is an optimization technique that is used to add redundant data to one or more than one table.

18. void pointer in C / C++
A void pointer is a pointer that has no associated data type with it. A void pointer can hold an address of any type and can be typecasted to any type.

19. Which sorting algorithm is the fastest sorting algorithm?
From different sorting algorithms that are available like bubble sort, heap sort, and merge sort it cannot be decided directly which sorting is fastest, it simply depends on the type of data that is to be sorted.

20. Differentiate NULL and void in data structures.
Void is the data type identifier and NULL is the value that is physically absent, void indicates no size when the data structure is initialized.

21. What are the different types of joins in SQL?

1. Inner Join- Inner join is used to extract the matching records from both the tables.

select * from table1
inner join table2
on table1.t1id=table2.t2id



2. Left Outer Join– The left outer join is used to return all the records from the left table and only the matching records from the right table.

select * from table1
left outer join table2
on table1.t1id=table2.t2id



3. Right Outer Join- The right outer join is used to return all records from the right table and only the matching records from the left table.

select * from table1
right outer join table2
on table1.t1id=table2.t2id



4. Full Outer Join- Full outer join is used to return all the records from both tables by combining left outer and right outer join. It returns NULL values if no column matches.

select * from table1
full outer join table2
on table1.t1id=table2.t2id



22. What are the layers in the OSI model?
There are a total of 7 layers

  • Physical Layer
  • Data Link Layer
  • Network Layer
  • Transport Layer
  • Session Layer
  • Presentation Layer
  • Application Layer

23. Differences between Hub, Switch, and Router?

Hub Switch Router
Physical Layer Device Data Link Layer Device Network Layer Device
Simply repeats signal to all ports Doesn’t simply repeat, but filters content by MAC or LAN address Routes data based on IP address
Connects devices within a single LAN Can connect multiple sub-LANs within a single LAN Connect multiple  LANS and WANS together.
Collision domain of all hosts connected through Hub remains one. i.e., if signal sent by any two devices can collide. Switch divides collision domain, but broadcast domain of connected devices remains same. It divides both collision and broadcast domains,

24. Name some services provided by the application layer in the Internet model.
Some services provided by the application layer in the Internet model are as follows:

  • Mail services
  • Directory services
  • File transfer
  • Access management
  • Network virtual terminal

25. What is IP Spoofing?
IP Spoofing is essentially a technique used by hackers to gain unauthorized access to Computers. Concepts of IP Spoofing were initially discussed in academic circles as early as 1980. 

26. What is the importance of twisting in the twisted-pair cable?
The twisted-pair cable consists of two insulated copper wires twisted together. The twisting is important for minimizing electromagnetic radiation and external interference.

27. What are the Advantages of Fiber Optics?

The advantages of Fiber Optics are mentioned below:

  • Bandwidth is above copper cables.
  • Less power loss and allows data transmission for extended distances.
  • The optical cable is resistant to electromagnetic interference.
  • Fiber cable is sized 4.5 times which is best than copper wires.
  • As the cable is lighter, and thinner, in order that they use less area as compared to copper wires.

28. What is the difference between Bluetooth and wifi? 

Bluetooth Wifi
Bluetooth has no full form. While Wifi stands for Wireless Fidelity.
It requires a Bluetooth adapter on all devices for connectivity. Whereas it requires a wireless adapter Bluetooth for all devices and a wireless router for connectivity.
Bluetooth consumes low power. while it consumes high power.
The security of BlueTooth is less in comparison to the number of wifi. While it provides better security than BlueTooth.
Bluetooth is less flexible means these limited users are supported. Whereas wifi supports a large number of users.

29. What is Thrashing? 
Thrashing is a situation when the performance of a computer degrades or collapses. Thrashing occurs when a system spends more time processing page faults than executing transactions.

30. What is virtual memory?
Virtual memory creates an illusion that each user has one or more contiguous address spaces, each beginning at address zero. The sizes of such virtual address spaces are generally very high. 

31. What is the time-sharing system?
Time-sharing is a logical extension of multiprogramming. The CPU performs many tasks by switches that are so frequent that the user can interact with each program while it is running.

32. What is multitasking?
Multitasking is a logical extension of a multiprogramming system that supports multiple programs to run concurrently. In multitasking, more than one task is executed at the same time.

33. What is caching?
The cache is a smaller and faster memory that stores copies of the data from frequently used main memory locations

34. What is the difference between the Operating system and kernel?

Operating System

Kernel

Operating System is system software. The kernel is system software that is part of the Microkerneloperating system.
Operating System provides an interface b/w the user and the hardware. The kernel provides an interface b/w the application and hardware.
It also provides protection and security. Its main purpose is memory management, disk management, process management and task management.
All system needs a real-time operating real-time, and Microkernel system to run. All operating system needs a kernel to run.

35. What is the difference between process and thread?

Sl.NO

Process

Thread

1. Process means any program is in execution. Thread means a segment of a process.
2. The process is less efficient in terms of communication. Thread is more efficient in terms of communication.
3. The process is isolated. Threads share memory.
4. The process is called heavyweight the process. Thread is called lightweight process.
5. Process switching uses, another process interface in operating system. Thread switching does not require to call an operating system and cause an interrupt to the kernel.

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