As we know the Data encryption standard (DES) uses 56 bit key to encrypt any plain text which can be easily be cracked by using modern technologies. To prevent this from happening double DES and triple DES were introduced which are much more secured than the original DES because it uses 112 and 168 bit keys respectively. They offer much more security than DES.
Double DES is a encryption technique which uses two instance of DES on same plain text. In both instances it uses different keys to encrypt the plain text. Both keys are required at the time of decryption. The 64 bit plain text goes into first DES instance which than converted into a 64 bit middle text using the first key and then it goes to second DES instance which gives 64 bit cipher text by using second key.
However double DES uses 112 bit key but gives security level of 2^56 not 2^112 and this is because of meet-in-the middle attack which can be used to break through double DES.
Triple DES is a encryption technique which uses three instance of DES on same plain text. It uses there different types of key choosing technique in first all used keys are different and in second two keys are same and one is different and in third all keys are same.
Triple DES is also vulnerable to meet-in-the middle attack because of which it give total security level of 2^112 instead of using 168 bit of key. The block collision attack can also be done because of short block size and using same key to encrypt large size of text. It is also vulnerable to sweet32 attack.
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