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States of Matter

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State of Matter or Phases of Matter are the states in which the matter exists around us. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Apart from these four states, there is also the fifth state of matter which is called the Bose-Eienstien state, which is not usually observed in our daily life.

In this article, we will learn about, matter, various states of matter, properties of various states of matter, and others in detail.

What is Matter?

All the things around us are made up of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and it occupies space. All the matter in the universe is made up of tiny particles called atoms and the atom is itself made up of other small particles called Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons. The matter has various states and they can be easily converted into other states by providing and removing the energy from the matter.

The states of matter can be easily converted and the solid can be easily converted to liquid and then gas and vice versa.

Phases of Matter

Five states of matter exist in the universe and all the matter around us exists in these states. The five states of the matter are,

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma
  • Bose-Einstien Condenstate

The basic three states of the matter

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas

are widely seen by us all the universe around us is made up of basic three states. Such that the rocks, marbles, etc are in a solid state, water, blood, milk, etc are in a liquid state, and air, oxygen, etc are in a gaseous state. Now let’s learn about the basic state of matter as

Three States of Matter

The three basic states of the matter are,

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas

Let’s learn about them in detail.

What is Solid State of Matter?

In a solid, the particles are tightly packed with each other and there is no or very less intermolecular space between these particles in the solid form are very close to each other and have very few intermolecular sites. The various properties of the solid are,

  • Solids have a definite shape.
  • Solids have a definite volume.
  • Solids have higher energy as compared to liquids and gases.
  • Solids cannot compress easily.
  • Solids have less intermolecular space than molecules.
  • Solids have high intermolecular forces.
  • Solids have a high density.

An example of solids is solid ice, sugar, rock, wood, etc.

Solid State of Matter

Solid State of Matter

What is Liquid State of Matter?

In the liquid, the particles are free to move and they are free to move and there are comparatively high intermolecular spaces between the particles. The particles have spaces between them and they can easily change their shape. The various properties of the solid are,

  • Liquid have a definite shape.
  • Liquid have a definite volume.
  • Liquid have an intermediate space between the molecules.
  • Shape of liquid is determined by the container into which a liquid is poured.
  • Liquid have a definite volume.
  • Liquid have fluidity.
  • Liquid can’t be compressed.
  • Liquid have less intermolecular force than solids and more than gases.

Various examples of liquids are Milk, Water, Blood, etc.

Liquid State of Matter

Liquid State of Matter

What is Gaseous State of Matter?

In gases, the particles are very far from each other and they are free to move in freely. A gas has no fixed volume and no fixed shape. They are highly compressible. The various properties of the gases are,

  • Gases don’t have any definite shape; they take the form of the objects in which they occupy space.
  • Gas can be easily compressed.
  • Gas have low volume and density as compared to solids and liquids.
  • Gas have a high diffusion rate.
  • Gaseous molecules have more intermolecular space than molecules.
  • Gas have low intermolecular forces.
  • Gas have less energy as compared to solids and gases.

Various examples of gases are Air, Nitrogens Gas, Oxygen Gas, etc.

Gas State of Matter

Gaseous State of Matter

What is Plasma?

Plasma is the fourth state of matter and it is not easily seen in our surroundings, it consists of particles with very high kinetic energy. The plasma state of matter can be made by taking noble gases and passing very high volt electricity. The plasma is seen in very few places around us, such as Neon Signs, CFLs, Stars, etc are made up of the plasma.

What is Bose-Einstein Condensates of Matter?

Bose-Einstein condensates were discovered in 1995. This state of matter was achieved by supercooling a sample of Rubidium within a few degrees of absolute zero. At this temperature the motion of the molecule of the particle becomes negligible and the kinetic energy of the particles approaches zero. This state of matter has no practical application yet and is only used for research purposes. This state of matter also behaves as a superfluid.

Change of State of Matter

Solid-state, liquid-state, and gaseous-state are three states of matter, and any physical change in their state is called a change of state of matter. These changes are reversible in nature means they can attain any state again and again. This reversible property of the three states depends upon different parameters and conditions which will be discussed below.

Change of State of Matter

A physical change in a matter is referred to as a change of state of matter. They are reversible modifications that do not require any changes in the matter’s chemical composition. Melting, freezing, sublimation, deposition, condensation, and vaporization are examples of common state transitions.

We can understand the meaning of a change of states of matter in one more way i.e. when a solid is heated it changes into liquid, and when a liquid is heated it changes into a gas, and when a gas is cooled it changes to a liquid when a liquid is cooled it changes to solid. And, we can interchange these states by:

  • Changing Temperature
  • Changing Pressure

Why do States of Matter Change?

The change in state occurs due to the following factors:

  • Changing the Temperature
  • Changing the Pressure
  • Changing the Intermolecular Space and Force of Attraction
  • Changing the Kinetic Energy of Particle

Let’s learn about them Changing the Temperature and Changing the Pressure and the other in detail.

Changing the Temperature

The temperature effect on heating a matter depends upon the nature of the matter and the conditions required in bringing the change. So, let’s discuss all the 6 interchanges between these states now.

Solid to Liquid change

This process is known as Melting. The process in which a solid substance changes into a liquid on heating is called melting. On increasing the temperature of the solid the kinetic energy of the particle increase which overcomes the force of attraction between the particles thereby solid melts and is converted into liquid.

Liquid to Gas change

This process is known as Boiling or Vapourisation. The process in which a liquid changes into gas rapidly on heating is called boiling. The temperature at which a liquid boils and changes rapidly into gas at atmospheric pressure is called the boiling point of the liquid.

Gas to Liquid Change

This process is known as Condensation. The process of changing gas into liquid by cooling is called condensation. Condensation is the reverse of boiling.

Liquid to Solid Change

 This process is known as Freezing. The process of transformation of liquid into a solid by cooling is called freezing. Freezing means solidification. It is the reverse of the melting process.

Solid to Gas Change

 This process is known as Sublimation. The change of solid directly into vapor on heating without passing through the intervening liquid state is called sublimation. The common substances which undergo sublimation are ammonium chloride, iodine, camphor, naphthalene, and anthracene. e.g. Solid carbon dioxide(or dry ice) sublimes to form carbon dioxide gas. Naphthalene balls disappear with time without leaving behind any residue.

Gas to Solid Change

This process is known as Deposition or Desublimation. It is a thermodynamic process in which gas changes into a solid directly without entering into the liquid phase.

Changing the Pressure

The physical state of matter can also be changed by changing the pressure. By applying high pressure the particles of a gas can be brought close together means gases can be liquefied easily by applying pressure and reducing temperature. When pressure is applied particles come together thus the force of attraction increases and intermolecular space decreases.

Hence, gas liquefies. When pressure around the solid carbon dioxide is reduced its temperature increases and it directly changes into carbon dioxide gas.

Interconversion of Three States of Matter

The states of matter are interconvertible. The state of matter can be changed by changing the temperature or pressure. The transition of one state to another is referred to as the interconversion of matter. It is a process in which matter transitions from one state to another and then returns to its original state with no change in its chemical makeup. Heating may transform solids into liquids. 

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FAQs on States of Matter

What is Matter?

The substance that occupies space and has mass is called matter. The universe around us is made up of matter and matter can neither be created nor destroyed. The matter can only change its state from one state to another.

What are the States of the Matter?

Various states of the matter are,

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma
  • Bose-Einstien Condensate

What is Three Basic State of Matter?

The three basic states of the matter are,

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas

What is Mass-Energy Equation?

The matter can never be destroyed nor created and it can also change from matter to energy using the mass-energy equation and the mass-energy equation is,

E = mc2

Can Matter be Created or Destroyed?

No matter can never be created nor be destroyed.

Last Updated : 17 Jan, 2024
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