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Periodic Table of Elements

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The Periodic table of elements is a systematic arrangement of 118 known chemical elements. These chemical elements are organized in order of increasing atomic number. The horizontal rows from left to right are called periods while the vertical columns from top to bottom are called groups in a periodic table.

Periodic Table of Elements

Periodic Table

A periodic table is a tabular representation in which all the known chemical elements are arranged in horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called groups based on their atomic number and atomic structure respectively.

It is an arrangement of all the known elements and therefore provides information about the elements such as their mass, electron number, electron configuration, and their unique chemical properties. 

Classification of Elements in Periodic Table

The 118 elements are arranged in 7 periods and 18 groups as shown below. Further, the elements are divided into different blocks.

BlockElements IncludedLast Electron Subshell Filled
s-blockGroup 1 (Alkali Metals)s-subshell
Group 2 (Alkaline Earth Metals)
p-blockGroup 13 (Boron Family)p-subshell
Group 14 (Carbon Family)
Group 15 (Nitrogen Family)
Group 16 (Oxygen Family)
Group 17 (Fluorine Family)
d-blockGroups 3 to 12 (Transition Elements)d-subshell
f-blockLanthanides (Rare Earth Elements)f-subshell
Actinides

List of Periodic Table Elements

Here is the table representing 118 elements of the periodic table. The elements listed are arranged according to the increasing order of atomic number and their respective atomic weight, symbol, density, and electronegativity.

Elements in Periodic Table with Atomic Mass

Atomic NumberChemical Element NameSymbolAtomic Mass (amu)Density (g/cm3)Electronegativity
1HydrogenH1.00790.000089882.2
2HeliumHe4.00260.0001785
3LithiumLi6.9410.5340.98
4BerylliumBe9.01221.851.57
5BoronB10.8112.342.04
6CarbonC12.01072.2672.55
7NitrogenN14.00670.00125063.04
8OxygenO15.99940.0014293.44
9FluorineF18.99840.0016963.98
10NeonNe20.17970.0009002
11SodiumNa22.98970.9680.93
12MagnesiumMg24.3051.7381.31
13AluminumAl26.98152.71.61
14SiliconSi28.08552.3291.9
15PhosphorusP30.97381.8232.19
16SulfurS32.0652.072.58
17ChlorineCl35.4530.00323.16
18ArgonAr39.9480.001784
19PotassiumK39.09830.890.82
20CalciumCa40.0781.551
21ScandiumSc44.95592.9851.36
22TitaniumTi47.8674.5061.54
23VanadiumV50.94156.111.63
24ChromiumCr51.99617.151.66
25ManganeseMn54.9387.211.55
26IronFe55.8457.8741.83
27CobaltCo58.93328.91.88
28NickelNi58.69348.9081.91
29CopperCu63.5461.960
30ZincZn65.391.6570
31GalliumGa69.7231.8119
32GermaniumGe72.642.011.5
33ArsenicAs74.92162.181.8
34SeleniumSe78.962.550.05
35BromineBr79.9042.962.4
36KryptonKr83.79831×10−4
37RubidiumRb85.46780.8290
38StrontiumSr87.620.95370
39YttriumY88.9061.2233
40ZirconiumZr91.2241.33165
41NiobiumNb92.9061.620
42MolybdenumMo95.942.161.2
43TechnetiumTc981.9~ 3×10−9
44RutheniumRu101.072.20.001
45RhodiumRh102.912.280.001
46PalladiumPd106.422.20.015
47SilverAg107.871.930.075
48CadmiumCd112.4111.690.159
49IndiumIn114.821.780.25
50TinSn118.711.962.3
51AntimonySb121.762.050.2
52TelluriumTe127.62.10.001
53IodineI126.90452.660.45
54XenonXe131.2932.63×10−5
55CesiumCs132.910.793
56BariumBa137.3270.89425
57LanthanumLa138.911.139
58CeriumCe140.121.1266.5
59PraseodymiumPr140.90771.139.2
60NeodymiumNd144.241.1441.5
61PromethiumPm1451.132×10−19
62SamariumSm150.361.177.05
63EuropiumEu151.9641.22
64GadoliniumGd157.251.26.2
65TerbiumTb158.92531.21.2
66DysprosiumDy162.51.225.2
67HolmiumHo164.93031.231.3
68ErbiumEr167.2591.243.5
69ThuliumTm168.93421.250.52
70YtterbiumYb173.041.13.2
71LutetiumLu174.9671.270.8
72HafniumHf178.491.33
73TantalumTa180.94791.52
74TungstenW183.842.361.3
75RheniumRe186.2071.97×10−4
76OsmiumOs190.232.20.002
77IridiumIr192.222.20.001
78PlatinumPt195.082.280.005
79GoldAu196.972.540.004
80MercuryHg200.5920.085
81ThalliumTl204.38331.620.85
82LeadPb207.21.87 (2+)
2.33 (4+)
14
83BismuthBi208.98042.020.009
84PoloniumPo20922×10−10
85AstatineAt2102.23×10−20
86RadonRn2222.24×10−13
87FranciumFr223>0.79[6]~ 1×10−18
88RadiumRa2260.99×10−7
89ActiniumAc2271.15.5×10−10
90ThoriumTh232.03811.39.6
91ProtactiniumPa231.03591.51.4×10−6
 
92UraniumU238.02891.382.7
93NeptuniumNp2371.36≤ 3×10−12
94PlutoniumPu2441.28≤ 3×10−11
95AmericiumAm2431.13
96CuriumCm2471.28
97BerkeliumBk2471.3
98CaliforniumCf2511.3
99EinsteiniumEs2521.3
100FermiumFm2571.3
101MendeleviumMd2581.3
102NobeliumNo2591.3
103LawrenciumLr2621.3
104RutherfordiumRf267
105DubniumDb268
106SeaborgiumSg269
107BohriumBh270
108HassiumHs269
109MeitneriumMt277
110DarmstadtiumDs281
111RoentgeniumRg282
112CoperniciumCn285
113NihoniumNh286
114FleroviumFl290
115MoscoviumMc290
116LivermoriumLv293
117TennessineTs294
118OganessonOg294

Important Terms in Periodic Table

Terms

Description

Atomic Number

The number of protons that constitutes an element’s nucleus is called its Atomic Number (Z). e.g. Carbon contains 6 protons then, so its atomic number must be 6 only. 

Atomic Mass

It is defined as the average mass of the atoms of an element. It is measured on the basis of the relative natural abundance of the isotopes of the element. Atomic mass is also termed Atomic Weight (A). It is measured in the atomic mass unit (amu).

Period

The horizontal rows from left to right in a periodic table are called Periods. There are a total of 7 periods in the periodic table. The elements are arranged horizontally due to their similarities in properties, like the same atomic orbitals and so on.

Group

The vertical columns from top to bottom in a periodic table are called Groups. There is a total of 18 groups in the periodic table. The elements are arranged vertically due to their similarities in properties, as they have the same number of valence electrons in them.

Symbol of an Element

A symbol is a notion that is used to represent a chemical element using a letter or a combination of two to three letters. e.g. The chemical symbol of Carbon is C, while Fe is used for Iron and so on.

Mendeleev Periodic Table

In order to represent similarities and trends in the behavior of elements, Mendeleev developed the periodic table, which is an arrangement of elements in an increasing atomic mass order in tabular form.

Mendeleev Periodic Table of Elements

According to Mendeleev’s Periodic Table, elements were arranged as per their fundamental property, atomic mass, and chemical characteristics. Only 63 elements were known at the time of Mendeleev’s work. In the Mendeleev periodic table, the horizontal row and vertical columns were referred to as groups and periods, respectively. 

However, Mendeleev’s Periodic Table fails due to many flaws in it. Some of them are, that it failed to designate Hydrogen and Noble gases in it. Also, the increasing order of the atomic mass of the elements wasn’t regular throughout the table. Even, the discovery of isotopes violates the Mendeleev Periodic Law.

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FAQs on Periodic Table of Elements

What is Periodic Table of Elements?

The Periodic Table of Elements is a tabular arrangement of chemical elements organized by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties. The table is divided into rows called periods and columns called groups or families.

Who Discovered Periodic Table of Elements?

The Periodic Table of Elements was not discovered by a single person, but its development is credited to Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, who arranged elements based on their properties in 1869.

Who Made the Modern Periodic Table?

In 1913, Henry Moseley introduced an updated version of the periodic table, commonly referred to as “The Modern Periodic Table.”

How is the Periodic Table Arranged?

The Periodic Table is arranged in order of increasing atomic number, with elements grouped together based on similar chemical properties and arranged into periods (rows) and groups (columns).

What is Atomic Number?

The number of protons that constitutes an element’s nucleus is called its Atomic Number (Z). e.g. Carbon contains 6 protons then, its atomic number must be 6 only. 

Can two different elements have the same atomic number?

The number of neutrons in an atom from two different elements can be similar, but the number of protons will never be same. Each element has a specific number of protons, which corresponds to the number of atoms.

How To Calculate Atomic Mass?

The atomic mass can be calculated by adding the mass of protons and neutrons in an element. 

What is a Group in Periodic Table?

The Column in the periodic table refers to the group of the periodic table. The elements of the same group have similar physical and chemical properties.



Last Updated : 29 Feb, 2024
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