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# Python Bitwise Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on values and variables. These are the special symbols that carry out arithmetic and logical computations. The value the operator operates on is known as Operand.

Table of Content:

## Bitwise operators

In Python, bitwise operators are used to perform bitwise calculations on integers. The integers are first converted into binary and then operations are performed on each bit or corresponding pair of bits, hence the name bitwise operators. The result is then returned in decimal format.

Note: Python bitwise operators work only on integers.

Let’s understand each operator one by one.

Bitwise AND operator Returns 1 if both the bits are 1 else 0.

Example:

```a = 10 = 1010 (Binary)
b = 4 =  0100 (Binary)

a & b = 1010
&
0100
= 0000
= 0 (Decimal)```

Bitwise or operator Returns 1 if either of the bit is 1 else 0.

Example:

```a = 10 = 1010 (Binary)
b = 4 =  0100 (Binary)

a | b = 1010
|
0100
= 1110
= 14 (Decimal)```

Bitwise not operator: Returns one’s complement of the number.

Example:

```a = 10 = 1010 (Binary)

In computers we usually represent numbers using 32 bits,
so binary representation of 10 is (....0000 1010)[32 bits]

~a is basically 1's complement of a
i.e ~a should be ~10 = ~(....0000 1010) = (....1111 0101) = intermediate-result

Since bitwise negation inverts the sign bit,
we now have a negative number. And we represent a negative number
using 2's complement.

2's complement of intermediate-result is:
intermediate-res =  0101      //....1111 0101

1010      //....0000 1010 -(1's complement)
+1
-----------
=  1011      //....0000 1011
-----------
=   -11 (Decimal)

thus ~a = -11```

Bitwise xor operator: Returns 1 if one of the bits is 1 and the other is 0 else returns false.

Example:

```a = 10 = 1010 (Binary)
b = 4 =  0100 (Binary)

a ^ b = 1010
^
0100
= 1110
= 14 (Decimal)```

## Python3

 `# Python program to show``# bitwise operators` `a ``=` `10``b ``=` `4` `# Print bitwise AND operation``print``(``"a & b ="``, a & b)` `# Print bitwise OR operation``print``(``"a | b ="``, a | b)` `# Print bitwise NOT operation``print``(``"~a ="``, ~a)` `# print bitwise XOR operation``print``(``"a ^ b ="``, a ^ b)`

Output:

```a & b = 0
a | b = 14
~a = -11
a ^ b = 14```

## Shift Operators

These operators are used to shift the bits of a number left or right thereby multiplying or dividing the number by two respectively. They can be used when we have to multiply or divide a number by two.
Bitwise right shift: Shifts the bits of the number to the right and fills 0 on voids left( fills 1 in the case of a negative number) as a result. Similar effect as of dividing the number with some power of two.
Example:

```Example 1:
a = 10 = 0000 1010 (Binary)
a >> 1 = 0000 0101 = 5

Example 2:
a = -10 = 1111 0110 (Binary)
a >> 1 = 1111 1011 = -5 ```

Bitwise left shift: Shifts the bits of the number to the left and fills 0 on voids right as a result. Similar effect as of multiplying the number with some power of two.
Example:

```Example 1:
a = 5 = 0000 0101 (Binary)
a << 1 = 0000 1010 = 10
a << 2 = 0001 0100 = 20

Example 2:
b = -10 = 1111 0110 (Binary)
b << 1 = 1110 1100 = -20
b << 2 = 1101 1000 = -40 ```

## Python3

 `# Python program to show``# shift operators` `a ``=` `10``b ``=` `-``10` `# print bitwise right shift operator``print``(``"a >> 1 ="``, a >> ``1``)``print``(``"b >> 1 ="``, b >> ``1``)` `a ``=` `5``b ``=` `-``10` `# print bitwise left shift operator``print``(``"a << 1 ="``, a << ``1``)``print``(``"b << 1 ="``, b << ``1``)`

Output:

```a >> 1 = 5
b >> 1 = -5
a << 1 = 10
b << 1 = -20```

Operator Overloading means giving extended meaning beyond their predefined operational meaning. For example operator + is used to add two integers as well as join two strings and merge two lists. It is achievable because the ‘+’ operator is overloaded by int class and str class. You might have noticed that the same built-in operator or function shows different behavior for objects of different classes, this is called Operator Overloading.

## Python3

 `# Python program to demonstrate``# operator overloading`  `class` `Geek():``    ``def` `__init__(``self``, value):``        ``self``.value ``=` `value` `    ``def` `__and__(``self``, obj):``        ``print``(``"And operator overloaded"``)``        ``if` `isinstance``(obj, Geek):``            ``return` `self``.value & obj.value``        ``else``:``            ``raise` `ValueError(``"Must be a object of class Geek"``)` `    ``def` `__or__(``self``, obj):``        ``print``(``"Or operator overloaded"``)``        ``if` `isinstance``(obj, Geek):``            ``return` `self``.value | obj.value``        ``else``:``            ``raise` `ValueError(``"Must be a object of class Geek"``)` `    ``def` `__xor__(``self``, obj):``        ``print``(``"Xor operator overloaded"``)``        ``if` `isinstance``(obj, Geek):``            ``return` `self``.value ^ obj.value``        ``else``:``            ``raise` `ValueError(``"Must be a object of class Geek"``)` `    ``def` `__lshift__(``self``, obj):``        ``print``(``"lshift operator overloaded"``)``        ``if` `isinstance``(obj, Geek):``            ``return` `self``.value << obj.value``        ``else``:``            ``raise` `ValueError(``"Must be a object of class Geek"``)` `    ``def` `__rshift__(``self``, obj):``        ``print``(``"rshift operator overloaded"``)``        ``if` `isinstance``(obj, Geek):``            ``return` `self``.value >> obj.value``        ``else``:``            ``raise` `ValueError(``"Must be a object of class Geek"``)` `    ``def` `__invert__(``self``):``        ``print``(``"Invert operator overloaded"``)``        ``return` `~``self``.value`  `# Driver's code``if` `__name__ ``=``=` `"__main__"``:``    ``a ``=` `Geek(``10``)``    ``b ``=` `Geek(``12``)``    ``print``(a & b)``    ``print``(a | b)``    ``print``(a ^ b)``    ``print``(a << b)``    ``print``(a >> b)``    ``print``(~a)`

Output:

```And operator overloaded
8