# Python Operators

• Difficulty Level : Easy
• Last Updated : 17 Jun, 2022

Python Operators in general are used to perform operations on values and variables. These are standard symbols used for the purpose of logical and arithmetic operations. In this article, we will look into different types of Python operators.

• OPERATORS: Are the special symbols. Eg- + , * , /, etc.
• OPERAND: It is the value on which the operator is applied.

## Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used to performing mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

• In Python 3.x the result of division is a floating-point while in Python 2.x division of 2 integer was an integer and to obtain an integer result in Python 3.x floored (// integer) is used.

### PRECEDENCE:

• P – Parentheses
• E – Exponentiation
• M – Multiplication     (Multiplication and division have the same precedence)
• D – Division
• S – Subtraction

The modulus operator helps us extract the last digit/s of a number. For example:

• x % 10 -> yields the last digit
• x % 100 -> yield last two digits

## Python3

 `# Examples of Arithmetic Operator``a ``=` `9``b ``=` `4` `# Addition of numbers``add ``=` `a ``+` `b` `# Subtraction of numbers``sub ``=` `a ``-` `b` `# Multiplication of number``mul ``=` `a ``*` `b` `# Division(float) of number``div1 ``=` `a ``/` `b` `# Division(floor) of number``div2 ``=` `a ``/``/` `b` `# Modulo of both number``mod ``=` `a ``%` `b` `# Power``p ``=` `a ``*``*` `b` `# print results``print``(add)``print``(sub)``print``(mul)``print``(div1)``print``(div2)``print``(mod)``print``(p)`

Output

```13
5
36
2.25
2
1
6561```

Note: Refer to Differences between / and // for some interesting facts about these two operators.

## Comparison Operators

Comparison of Relational operators compares the values. It either returns True or False according to the condition.

= is an assignment operator and == comparison operator.

## Python3

 `# Examples of Relational Operators``a ``=` `13``b ``=` `33` `# a > b is False``print``(a > b)` `# a < b is True``print``(a < b)` `# a == b is False``print``(a ``=``=` `b)` `# a != b is True``print``(a !``=` `b)` `# a >= b is False``print``(a >``=` `b)` `# a <= b is True``print``(a <``=` `b)`

Output

```False
True
False
True
False
True```

## Logical Operators

Logical operators perform Logical AND, Logical OR, and Logical NOT operations. It is used to combine conditional statements.

## Python3

 `# Examples of Logical Operator``a ``=` `True``b ``=` `False` `# Print a and b is False``print``(a ``and` `b)` `# Print a or b is True``print``(a ``or` `b)` `# Print not a is False``print``(``not` `a)`

Output

```False
True
False```

## Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators act on bits and perform the bit-by-bit operations. These are used to operate on binary numbers.

## Python3

 `# Examples of Bitwise operators``a ``=` `10``b ``=` `4` `# Print bitwise AND operation``print``(a & b)` `# Print bitwise OR operation``print``(a | b)` `# Print bitwise NOT operation``print``(~a)` `# print bitwise XOR operation``print``(a ^ b)` `# print bitwise right shift operation``print``(a >> ``2``)` `# print bitwise left shift operation``print``(a << ``2``)`

Output

```0
14
-11
14
2
40```

## Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are used to assign values to the variables.

## Python3

 `# Examples of Assignment Operators``a ``=` `10` `# Assign value``b ``=` `a``print``(b)` `# Add and assign value``b ``+``=` `a``print``(b)` `# Subtract and assign value``b ``-``=` `a``print``(b)` `# multiply and assign``b ``*``=` `a``print``(b)` `# bitwise lishift operator``b <<``=` `a``print``(b)`

Output

```10
20
10
100
102400```

## Identity Operators

is and is not are the identity operators both are used to check if two values are located on the same part of the memory. Two variables that are equal do not imply that they are identical.

```is          True if the operands are identical
is not      True if the operands are not identical ```

## Python3

 `a ``=` `10``b ``=` `20``c ``=` `a` `print``(a ``is` `not` `b)``print``(a ``is` `c)`

Output

```True
True```

## Membership Operators

in and not in are the membership operators; used to test whether a value or variable is in a sequence.

```in            True if value is found in the sequence

## Python3

 `# Python program to illustrate``# not 'in' operator``x ``=` `24``y ``=` `20``list` `=` `[``10``, ``20``, ``30``, ``40``, ``50``]` `if` `(x ``not` `in` `list``):``    ``print``(``"x is NOT present in given list"``)``else``:``    ``print``(``"x is present in given list"``)` `if` `(y ``in` `list``):``    ``print``(``"y is present in given list"``)``else``:``    ``print``(``"y is NOT present in given list"``)`

Output

```x is NOT present in given list
y is present in given list```

## Precedence and Associativity of Operators

Precedence and Associativity of Operators: Operator precedence and associativity determine the priorities of the operator.

### Operator Precedence

This is used in an expression with more than one operator with different precedence to determine which operation to perform first.

## Python3

 `# Examples of Operator Precedence` `# Precedence of '+' & '*'``expr ``=` `10` `+` `20` `*` `30``print``(expr)` `# Precedence of 'or' & 'and'``name ``=` `"Alex"``age ``=` `0` `if` `name ``=``=` `"Alex"` `or` `name ``=``=` `"John"` `and` `age >``=` `2``:``    ``print``(``"Hello! Welcome."``)``else``:``    ``print``(``"Good Bye!!"``)`

Output

```610
Hello! Welcome.```

### Operator Associativity

If an expression contains two or more operators with the same precedence then Operator Associativity is used to determine. It can either be Left to Right or from Right to Left.

## Python3

 `# Examples of Operator Associativity` `# Left-right associativity``# 100 / 10 * 10 is calculated as``# (100 / 10) * 10 and not``# as 100 / (10 * 10)``print``(``100` `/` `10` `*` `10``)` `# Left-right associativity``# 5 - 2 + 3 is calculated as``# (5 - 2) + 3 and not``# as 5 - (2 + 3)``print``(``5` `-` `2` `+` `3``)` `# left-right associativity``print``(``5` `-` `(``2` `+` `3``))` `# right-left associativity``# 2 ** 3 ** 2 is calculated as``# 2 ** (3 ** 2) and not``# as (2 ** 3) ** 2``print``(``2` `*``*` `3` `*``*` `2``)`

Output

```100.0
6
0
512```

## Quiz on Python Operators

https://youtu.be/oiJUZbRIR7Y

Division Operators allow you to divide two numbers and return a quotient, i.e., the first number or number at the left is divided by the second number or number at the right and returns the quotient.

There are two types of division operators:

### (i) Float division:

The quotient returns by this operator is always a float number, no matter if two numbers are integer. For example:

```>>>5/5
1.0
>>>10/2
5.0
>>>-10/2
-5.0
>>>20.0/2
10.0```

### (ii) Integer division( Floor division):

The quotient returned by this operator is dependent on the argument being passed. If any of the numbers is float, it returns output in float. It is also known as Floor division because, if any number is negative, then the output will be floored. For example:

```>>>5//5
1
>>>3//2
1
>>>10//3
3```

Consider the below statements in Python.

## Python3

 `# A Python program to demonstrate the use of``# "//" for integers``print` `(``5``/``/``2``)``print` `(``-``5``/``/``2``)`

Output:

```2
-3```

The first output is fine, but the second one may be surprised if we are coming Java/C++ world. In Python, the “//” operator works as a floor division for integer and float arguments. However, the division operator ‘/’ returns always a float value.

Note: The “//” operator is used to return the closest integer value which is less than or equal to a specified expression or value. So from the above code, 5//2 returns 2. You know that 5/2 is 2.5, and the closest integer which is less than or equal is 2[5//2].( it is inverse to the normal maths, in normal maths the value is 3).

Example

## Python3

 `# A Python program to demonstrate use of``# "/" for floating point numbers``print` `(``5.0``/``2``)``print` `(``-``5.0``/``2``)`

Output

```2.5
-2.5```

The real floor division operator is “//”. It returns the floor value for both integer and floating-point arguments.

## Python3

 `# A Python program to demonstrate use of``# "//" for both integers and floating points``print` `(``5``/``/``2``)``print` `(``-``5``/``/``2``)``print` `(``5.0``/``/``2``)``print` `(``-``5.0``/``/``2``)`

Output

```2
-3
2.0
-3.0```

See this for example.

Ternary operators

Ternary operators are also known as conditional expressions are operators that evaluate something based on a condition being true or false. It was added to Python in version 2.5
It simply allows testing a condition in a single line replacing the multiline if-else making the code compact.

Syntax :

`[on_true] if [expression] else [on_false] `
• Simple Method to use ternary operator:

## Python

 `# Program to demonstrate conditional operator``a, b ``=` `10``, ``20` `# Copy value of a in min if a < b else copy b``min` `=` `a ``if` `a < b ``else` `b` `print``(``min``)`

Output:

`10`
• Direct Method by using tuples, Dictionary, and lambda

## Python

 `# Python program to demonstrate ternary operator``a, b ``=` `10``, ``20` `# Use tuple for selecting an item``# (if_test_false,if_test_true)[test]``# if [a

Output:

```10
10
10```
• Ternary operator can be written as nested if-else:

## Python

 `# Python program to demonstrate nested ternary operator``a, b ``=` `10``, ``20` `print` `(``"Both a and b are equal"` `if` `a ``=``=` `b ``else` `"a is greater than b"``        ``if` `a > b ``else` `"b is greater than a"``)`

The above approach can be written as:

## Python

 `# Python program to demonstrate nested ternary operator``a, b ``=` `10``, ``20` `if` `a !``=` `b:``    ``if` `a > b:``        ``print``(``"a is greater than b"``)``    ``else``:``        ``print``(``"b is greater than a"``)``else``:``    ``print``(``"Both a and b are equal"``)`

Output:

` b is greater than a`
• To use print function in ternary operator be like:-

Example: Find the Larger number among 2 using ternary operator in python3

## Python3

 `a``=``5``b``=``7` `# [statement_on_True] if [condition] else [statement_on_false]` `print``(a,``"is greater"``) ``if` `(a>b) ``else` `print``(b,``"is Greater"``)`

Output:

`7 is Greater`

### Important Points:

• First the given condition is evaluated (a < b), then either a or b is returned based on the Boolean value returned by the condition
• Order of the arguments in the operator is different from other languages like C/C++ (See C/C++ ternary operators).
• Conditional expressions have the lowest priority amongst all Python operations.

Method used prior to 2.5 when the ternary operator was not present
In an expression like the one given below, the interpreter checks for the expression if this is true then on_true is evaluated, else the on_false is evaluated.

Syntax :

```'''When condition becomes true, expression [on_false]
is not executed and value of "True and [on_true]"
is returned.  Else value of "False or [on_false]"
is returned.
Note that "True and x" is equal to x.
And "False or x" is equal to x. '''
[expression] and [on_true] or [on_false] ```

Example :

## Python

 `# Program to demonstrate conditional operator``a, b ``=` `10``, ``20` `# If a is less than b, then a is assigned``# else b is assigned (Note : it doesn't``# work if a is 0.``min` `=` `a < b ``and` `a ``or` `b` `print``(``min``)`

Output:

`10`

Note : The only drawback of this method is that on_true must not be zero or False. If this happens on_false will be evaluated always. The reason for that is if the expression is true, the interpreter will check for the on_true, if that will be zero or false, that will force the interpreter to check for on_false to give the final result of the whole expression.

My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up