In Python programming, Operators in general are used to perform operations on values and variables. These are standard symbols used for the purpose of logical and arithmetic operations. In this article, we will look into different types of Python operators.
- OPERATORS: These are the special symbols. Eg- + , * , /, etc.
- OPERAND: It is the value on which the operator is applied.
Types of Operators in Python
- Arithmetic Operators
- Comparison Operators
- Logical Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Identity Operators and Membership Operators
Arithmetic Operators in Python
Python Arithmetic operators are used to perform basic mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
In Python 3.x the result of division is a floating-point while in Python 2.x division of 2 integers was an integer. To obtain an integer result in Python 3.x floored (// integer) is used.
|+||Addition: adds two operands||x + y|
|–||Subtraction: subtracts two operands||x – y|
|*||Multiplication: multiplies two operands||x * y|
|/||Division (float): divides the first operand by the second||x / y|
|//||Division (floor): divides the first operand by the second||x // y|
|%||Modulus: returns the remainder when the first operand is divided by the second||x % y|
|**||Power: Returns first raised to power second||x ** y|
Example of Arithmetic Operators in Python
Division Operators allow you to divide two numbers and return a quotient, i.e., the first number or number at the left is divided by the second number or number at the right and returns the quotient.
There are two types of division operators:
- Float division
- Floor division
The quotient returned by this operator is always a float number, no matter if two numbers are integers. For example:
1.0 5.0 -5.0 10.0
Integer division( Floor division)
The quotient returned by this operator is dependent on the argument being passed. If any of the numbers is float, it returns output in float. It is also known as Floor division because, if any number is negative, then the output will be floored. For example:
3 -3 2.0 -3.0
Precedence of Arithmetic Operators in Python
The precedence of Arithmetic Operators in python is as follows:
- P – Parentheses
- E – Exponentiation
- M – Multiplication (Multiplication and division have the same precedence)
- D – Division
- A – Addition (Addition and subtraction have the same precedence)
- S – Subtraction
The modulus operator helps us extract the last digit/s of a number. For example:
- x % 10 -> yields the last digit
- x % 100 -> yield last two digits
Arithmetic Operators With Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Modulo and Power
Here is an example showing how different Arithmetic Operators in Python work:
13 5 36 1 6561
Note: Refer to Differences between / and // for some interesting facts about these two operators.
Comparison Operators in Python
In Python Comparison of Relational operators compares the values. It either returns True or False according to the condition.
|>||Greater than: True if the left operand is greater than the right||x > y|
|<||Less than: True if the left operand is less than the right||x < y|
|==||Equal to: True if both operands are equal||x == y|
|!=||Not equal to – True if operands are not equal||x != y|
|>=||Greater than or equal to True if the left operand is greater than or equal to the right||x >= y|
|<=||Less than or equal to True if the left operand is less than or equal to the right||x <= y|
= is an assignment operator and == comparison operator.
Precedence of Comparison Operators in Python
In python, the comparison operators have lower precedence than the arithmetic operators. All the operators within comparison operators have same precedence order.
Example of Comparison Operators in Python
Let’s see an example of Comparison Operators in Python.
False True False True False True
Logical Operators in Python
Python Logical operators perform Logical AND, Logical OR, and Logical NOT operations. It is used to combine conditional statements.
|and||Logical AND: True if both the operands are true||x and y|
|or||Logical OR: True if either of the operands is true||x or y|
|not||Logical NOT: True if the operand is false||not x|
Precedence of Logical Operators in Python
The precedence of Logical Operators in python is as follows:
- Logical not
- logical and
- logical or
Example of Logical Operators in Python
The following code shows how to implement Logical Operators in Python:
False True False
Bitwise Operators in Python
Python Bitwise operators act on bits and perform bit-by-bit operations. These are used to operate on binary numbers.
|&||Bitwise AND||x & y|
||||Bitwise OR||x | y|
|^||Bitwise XOR||x ^ y|
|>>||Bitwise right shift||x>>|
|<<||Bitwise left shift||x<<|
Precedence of Bitwise Operators in Python
The precedence of Bitwise Operators in python is as follows:
- Bitwise NOT
- Bitwise Shift
- Bitwise AND
- Bitwise XOR
- Bitwise OR
Bitwise Operators in Python
Here is an example showing how Bitwise Operators in Python work:
0 14 -11 14 2 40
Assignment Operators in Python
Python Assignment operators are used to assign values to the variables.
|=||Assign the value of the right side of the expression to the left side operand||x = y + z|
|+=||Add AND: Add right-side operand with left-side operand and then assign to left operand||a+=b a=a+b|
|-=||Subtract AND: Subtract right operand from left operand and then assign to left operand||a-=b a=a-b|
|*=||Multiply AND: Multiply right operand with left operand and then assign to left operand||a*=b a=a*b|
|/=||Divide AND: Divide left operand with right operand and then assign to left operand||a/=b a=a/b|
|%=||Modulus AND: Takes modulus using left and right operands and assign the result to left operand||a%=b a=a%b|
|//=||Divide(floor) AND: Divide left operand with right operand and then assign the value(floor) to left operand||a//=b a=a//b|
|**=||Exponent AND: Calculate exponent(raise power) value using operands and assign value to left operand||a**=b a=a**b|
|&=||Performs Bitwise AND on operands and assign value to left operand||a&=b a=a&b|
||=||Performs Bitwise OR on operands and assign value to left operand||a|=b a=a|b|
|^=||Performs Bitwise xOR on operands and assign value to left operand||a^=b a=a^b|
|>>=||Performs Bitwise right shift on operands and assign value to left operand||a>>=b a=a>>b|
|<<=||Performs Bitwise left shift on operands and assign value to left operand||a <<= b a= a << b|
Assignment Operators in Python
Let’s see an example of Assignment Operators in Python.
10 20 10 100 102400
Identity Operators in Python
In Python, is and is not are the identity operators both are used to check if two values are located on the same part of the memory. Two variables that are equal do not imply that they are identical.
is True if the operands are identical is not True if the operands are not identical
Example Identity Operators in Python
Let’s see an example of Identity Operators in Python.
Membership Operators in Python
In Python, in and not in are the membership operators that are used to test whether a value or variable is in a sequence.
in True if value is found in the sequence not in True if value is not found in the sequence
Examples of Membership Operators in Python
The following code shows how to implement Membership Operators in Python:
x is NOT present in given list y is present in given list
Ternary Operator in Python
in Python, Ternary operators also known as conditional expressions are operators that evaluate something based on a condition being true or false. It was added to Python in version 2.5.
It simply allows testing a condition in a single line replacing the multiline if-else making the code compact.
Syntax : [on_true] if [expression] else [on_false]
Examples of Ternary Operator in Python
Here is a simple example of Ternary Operator in Python.
Precedence and Associativity of Operators in Python
In Python, Operator precedence and associativity determine the priorities of the operator.
Operator Precedence in Python
This is used in an expression with more than one operator with different precedence to determine which operation to perform first.
Let’s see an example of how Operator Precedence in Python works:
610 Hello! Welcome.
Operator Associativity in Python
If an expression contains two or more operators with the same precedence then Operator Associativity is used to determine. It can either be Left to Right or from Right to Left.
The following code shows how Operator Associativity in Python works:
100.0 6 0 512
To try your knowledge of Python Operators, you can take out the quiz on Python Operators.
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