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Minimize cost of painting N houses such that adjacent houses have different colors
• Difficulty Level : Easy
• Last Updated : 10 Mar, 2021

Given an integer N and a 2D array cost[], where cost[i], cost[i], and cost[i] is the cost of painting ith house with colors red, blue, and green respectively, the task is to find the minimum cost to paint all the houses such that no two adjacent houses have the same color.

Examples:

Input: N = 3, cost[] = {{14, 2, 11}, {11, 14, 5}, {14, 3, 10}}
Output: 10
Explanation:
Paint house 0 as blue. Cost = 2. Paint house 1 as green. Cost = 5. Paint house 2 as blue. Cost = 3.
Therefore, the total cost = 2 + 5 + 3 = 10.

Input: N = 2, cost[] = {{1, 2, 3}, {1, 4, 6}}
Output: 3

Naive Approach: The simplest approach to solve the given problem is to generate all possible ways of coloring all the houses with the colors red, blue, and green and find the minimum cost among all the possible combinations such that no two adjacent houses have the same colors.
Time Complexity: (3N)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)

Efficient Approach: The above approach can be optimized by using Dynamic Programming as there are overlapping subproblems that can be stored to minimize the number of recursive calls. The idea is to find the minimum cost of painting the current house by any color on the basis of the minimum cost of the other two colors of previously colored houses. Follow the steps below to solve the given problem: Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

• Create an auxiliary 2D dp[] array to store the minimum cost of previously colored houses.
• Initialize dp, dp, and dp as the cost of cost[i], cost[i], and cost[i] respectively.
• Traverse the given array cost[] over the range [1, N] and update the cost of painting the current house with colors red, blue, and green with the minimum of the cost other two colors in dp[i], dp[i], and dp[i] respectively.
• After completing the above steps, print the minimum of dp[N – 1], dp[N – 1], and dp[N – 1] as the minimum cost of painting all the houses with different adjacent colors.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## C++

 `// C++ program for the above approach` `#include ``using` `namespace` `std;` `// Function to find the minimum cost of``// coloring the houses such that no two``// adjacent houses has the same color``int` `minCost(vector >& costs,``            ``int` `N)``{``    ``// Corner Case``    ``if` `(N == 0)``        ``return` `0;` `    ``// Auxiliary 2D dp array``    ``vector > dp(``        ``N, vector<``int``>(3, 0));` `    ``// Base Case``    ``dp = costs;``    ``dp = costs;``    ``dp = costs;` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 1; i < N; i++) {` `        ``// If current house is colored``        ``// with red the take min cost of``        ``// previous houses colored with``        ``// (blue and green)``        ``dp[i] = min(dp[i - 1],``                       ``dp[i - 1])``                   ``+ costs[i];` `        ``// If current house is colored``        ``// with blue the take min cost of``        ``// previous houses colored with``        ``// (red and green)``        ``dp[i] = min(dp[i - 1],``                       ``dp[i - 1])``                   ``+ costs[i];` `        ``// If current house is colored``        ``// with green the take min cost of``        ``// previous houses colored with``        ``// (red and blue)``        ``dp[i] = min(dp[i - 1],``                       ``dp[i - 1])``                   ``+ costs[i];``    ``}` `    ``// Print the min cost of the``    ``// last painted house``    ``cout << min(dp[N - 1],``                ``min(dp[N - 1],``                    ``dp[N - 1]));``}` `// Driver Code``int` `main()``{``    ``vector > costs{ { 14, 2, 11 },``                                ``{ 11, 14, 5 },``                                ``{ 14, 3, 10 } };``    ``int` `N = costs.size();` `    ``// Function Call``    ``minCost(costs, N);` `    ``return` `0;``}`

## Java

 `// Java program for the above approach``import` `java.io.*;``import` `java.lang.*;``import` `java.util.*;` `class` `GFG {` `  ``// Function to find the minimum cost of``  ``// coloring the houses such that no two``  ``// adjacent houses has the same color``  ``static` `void` `minCost(``int` `costs[][], ``int` `N)``  ``{` `    ``// Corner Case``    ``if` `(N == ``0``)``      ``return``;` `    ``// Auxiliary 2D dp array``    ``int` `dp[][] = ``new` `int``[N][``3``];` `    ``// Base Case``    ``dp[``0``][``0``] = costs[``0``][``0``];``    ``dp[``0``][``1``] = costs[``0``][``1``];``    ``dp[``0``][``2``] = costs[``0``][``2``];` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = ``1``; i < N; i++) {` `      ``// If current house is colored``      ``// with red the take min cost of``      ``// previous houses colored with``      ``// (blue and green)``      ``dp[i][``0``] = Math.min(dp[i - ``1``][``1``], dp[i - ``1``][``2``])``        ``+ costs[i][``0``];` `      ``// If current house is colored``      ``// with blue the take min cost of``      ``// previous houses colored with``      ``// (red and green)``      ``dp[i][``1``] = Math.min(dp[i - ``1``][``0``], dp[i - ``1``][``2``])``        ``+ costs[i][``1``];` `      ``// If current house is colored``      ``// with green the take min cost of``      ``// previous houses colored with``      ``// (red and blue)``      ``dp[i][``2``] = Math.min(dp[i - ``1``][``0``], dp[i - ``1``][``1``])``        ``+ costs[i][``2``];``    ``}` `    ``// Print the min cost of the``    ``// last painted house``    ``System.out.println(``      ``Math.min(dp[N - ``1``][``0``],``               ``Math.min(dp[N - ``1``][``1``], dp[N - ``1``][``2``])));``  ``}` `  ``// Driver code``  ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``  ``{` `    ``int` `costs[][] = { { ``14``, ``2``, ``11` `},``                     ``{ ``11``, ``14``, ``5` `},``                     ``{ ``14``, ``3``, ``10` `} };` `    ``int` `N = costs.length;` `    ``// Function Call``    ``minCost(costs, N);``  ``}``}` `// This code is contribued by Kingash.`

## Python3

 `# Python 3 program for the above approach` `# Function to find the minimum cost of``# coloring the houses such that no two``# adjacent houses has the same color``def` `minCost(costs, N):``  ` `    ``# Corner Case``    ``if` `(N ``=``=` `0``):``        ``return` `0` `    ``# Auxiliary 2D dp array``    ``dp ``=` `[[``0` `for` `i ``in` `range``(``3``)] ``for` `j ``in` `range``(``3``)]` `    ``# Base Case``    ``dp[``0``][``0``] ``=` `costs[``0``][``0``]``    ``dp[``0``][``1``] ``=` `costs[``0``][``1``]``    ``dp[``0``][``2``] ``=` `costs[``0``][``2``]` `    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``1``, N, ``1``):``      ` `        ``# If current house is colored``        ``# with red the take min cost of``        ``# previous houses colored with``        ``# (blue and green)``        ``dp[i][``0``] ``=` `min``(dp[i ``-` `1``][``1``], dp[i ``-` `1``][``2``]) ``+` `costs[i][``0``]` `        ``# If current house is colored``        ``# with blue the take min cost of``        ``# previous houses colored with``        ``# (red and green)``        ``dp[i][``1``] ``=` `min``(dp[i ``-` `1``][``0``], dp[i ``-` `1``][``2``]) ``+` `costs[i][``1``]` `        ``# If current house is colored``        ``# with green the take min cost of``        ``# previous houses colored with``        ``# (red and blue)``        ``dp[i][``2``] ``=` `min``(dp[i ``-` `1``][``0``], dp[i ``-` `1``][``1``]) ``+` `costs[i][``2``]` `    ``# Print the min cost of the``    ``# last painted house``    ``print``(``min``(dp[N ``-` `1``][``0``], ``min``(dp[N ``-` `1``][``1``],dp[N ``-` `1``][``2``])))` `# Driver Code``if` `__name__ ``=``=` `'__main__'``:``    ``costs ``=` `[[``14``, ``2``, ``11``],``             ``[``11``, ``14``, ``5``],``             ``[``14``, ``3``, ``10``]]``    ``N ``=` `len``(costs)``    ` `    ``# Function Call``    ``minCost(costs, N)``    ` `    ``# This code is contributed by ipg2016107.`

## C#

 `// C# program for the above approach``using` `System;``using` `System.Collections.Generic;``class` `GFG{` `  ``// Function to find the minimum cost of``  ``// coloring the houses such that no two``  ``// adjacent houses has the same color``  ``static` `int` `minCost(List>costs,``                     ``int` `N)``  ``{``    ``// Corner Case``    ``if` `(N == 0)``      ``return` `0;` `    ``// Auxiliary 2D dp array``    ``List<``int``> temp = ``new` `List<``int``>();``    ``for``(``int` `i=0;i<3;i++)``      ``temp.Add(0);``    ``List> dp = ``new` `List>();``    ``for``(``int` `i=0;i>costs = ``new` `List>();``    ``costs.Add(``new` `List<``int``>(){14, 2, 11});``    ``costs.Add(``new` `List<``int``>(){11, 14, 5 });``    ``costs.Add(``new` `List<``int``>(){14, 3, 10 });``    ``int` `N = 3;` `    ``// Function Call``    ``Console.WriteLine((``int``)(minCost(costs, N)));``  ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by bgangwar59.`
Output:
`10`

Time Complexity: O(N)
Auxiliary Space: O(N)

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