Haskell is a general-purpose programming language that is normalized and has unadulterated practical programming features. It was developed and structured by Lennart Augustsson, John Hughes, Paul Hudak, John Launchbury, Simon Peyton Jones, Philip Wadler, and Erik Meijer. Its composing discipline is strong, static, constructed, and has no strict semantics. It was authorized under the Clause 3 BSD permit. Its features are lazy, lax, and modular programming. Some dialects have existed for several years, but they become known only to the main explicit community, and others stay uninformed of the decent features. Its file extension is .hs or .lhs and supports cross-platform framework.
Features of Haskell:
- Purely functional: Functions in Haskell are in the mathematical sense (i.e., “pure”). Even side-effecting input-output operations are nevertheless a portrayal of what to do, delivered by unadulterated code. There are no guidelines, just expressions which cannot mutate variables (local or global) nor access state like time or random numbers.
- Lazy: Haskell has the primary feature of lazy evaluation. It is likewise called a ‘call-by-need’, which is a strategy where the developer can defer the assessment of an expression until its value is required or asked for. It helps in avoiding repeated evaluations empowering sharing, which reduces the execution time of functions.
- Packages: Haskell is open-source, with a wide range of packages available on the public servers. For example, base, parsec, etc.
- Statically typed: In Haskell every expression’s type is determined at the time of compilation. All the types composed together by function application need to be co-ordinated or matched up. On the off chance that, If they don’t match up, the program will be dismissed by the compiler.
- Type inference: The Type classes are the most impressive features in Haskell, which permits to characterize generic interfaces. They are a great idea to give a typical list of features of different types. The features like quality, testing and numeric operators utilize the Type classes.
Features of Scala:
- Functional: It is also a functional programming language as every function is a value and every value is an object. It provides the support for the high-order functions, nested functions, anonymous functions, etc.
- Type Inference: In Scala, there is no need to mention data type and function return types explicitly, it automatically deduces the type of data. The return type of function is estimated by the type of last expression present in the function.
- Immutability: Scala uses immutability idea where every declared variable is immutable as a matter of course. Immutable means you can’t modify its value. Immutable data assists to manage concurrency control which requires managing data. In addition, we can create mutable variables whose values can be changed or altered.
- Object- Oriented: Every value in Scala is an object so it is a purely object-oriented programming language. The behavior and type of objects are depicted by the classes and traits in Scala.
- Run on JVM & Can Execute Java Code: Java and Scala have a common runtime environment. So the user can easily move from Java to Scala. The Scala compiler compiles the program into .class file, containing the Bytecode that can be executed by the JVM.
Haskell vs Scala
|Definition||It is a general-purpose programming language which has pure programming features.||It is also a general-purpose programming language, which underpins functional programming.|
|Compilation model||It has a compilation model as Glasgow Haskell Compilation (GHC) Model.||Compilation model in Scala is similar to that of C++ and Java.|
|Syntax||The syntax in Haskell is easy with simple features and is string typing.||Scala has complicated syntax and complex features.|
|Functional||Haskell has referential transparency its functions are pure standard first class functions.||Scala doesn’t ensure referential transparency and doesn’t have unadulterated features.|
|Documentation||Haskell provides documentation with offline support and immediate search.||It provided in depth documentation encompassing of all the functional programming features.|
|Feature||Haskell has standard features and parametric polymorphism.||Scala has immutability, concurrency control, type inference and so forth.|
|Community||Haskell community has of large number of software developers.||Developers in the Scala community are less in comparison to Haskell.|