# Find the number of islands | Set 1 (Using DFS)

Given a boolean 2D matrix, find the number of islands. A group of connected 1s forms an island. For example, the below matrix contains 5 islands

```Input : mat[][] = {{1, 1, 0, 0, 0},
{0, 1, 0, 0, 1},
{1, 0, 0, 1, 1},
{0, 0, 0, 0, 0},
{1, 0, 1, 0, 1}
Output : 5
```

This is an variation of the standard problem: “Counting number of connected components in a undirected graph”.

Before we go to the problem, let us understand what is a connected component. A connected component of an undirected graph is a subgraph in which every two vertices are connected to each other by a path(s), and which is connected to no other vertices outside the subgraph.
For example, the graph shown below has three connected components.

## Recommended: Please solve it on “PRACTICE” first, before moving on to the solution.

A graph where all vertices are connected with each other, has exactly one connected component, consisting of the whole graph. Such graph with only one connected component is called as Strongly Connected Graph.

The problem can be easily solved by applying DFS() on each component. In each DFS() call, a component or a sub-graph is visited. We will call DFS on the next un-visited component. The number of calls to DFS() gives the number of connected components. BFS can also be used.

What is an island?
A group of connected 1s forms an island. For example, the below matrix contains 5 islands

```	                {1, 1, 0, 0, 0},
{0, 1, 0, 0, 1},
{1, 0, 0, 1, 1},
{0, 0, 0, 0, 0},
{1, 0, 1, 0, 1}
```

## Recommended: Please solve it on “PRACTICE” first, before moving on to the solution.

A cell in 2D matrix can be connected to 8 neighbors. So, unlike standard DFS(), where we recursively call for all adjacent vertices, here we can recursive call for 8 neighbors only. We keep track of the visited 1s so that they are not visited again.

## C/C++

```// Program to count islands in boolean 2D matrix
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdbool.h>

#define ROW 5
#define COL 5

// A function to check if a given cell (row, col) can be included in DFS
int isSafe(int M[][COL], int row, int col, bool visited[][COL])
{
// row number is in range, column number is in range and value is 1
// and not yet visited
return (row >= 0) && (row < ROW) &&
(col >= 0) && (col < COL) &&
(M[row][col] && !visited[row][col]);
}

// A utility function to do DFS for a 2D boolean matrix. It only considers
// the 8 neighbours as adjacent vertices
void DFS(int M[][COL], int row, int col, bool visited[][COL])
{
// These arrays are used to get row and column numbers of 8 neighbours
// of a given cell
static int rowNbr[] = {-1, -1, -1,  0, 0,  1, 1, 1};
static int colNbr[] = {-1,  0,  1, -1, 1, -1, 0, 1};

// Mark this cell as visited
visited[row][col] = true;

// Recur for all connected neighbours
for (int k = 0; k < 8; ++k)
if (isSafe(M, row + rowNbr[k], col + colNbr[k], visited) )
DFS(M, row + rowNbr[k], col + colNbr[k], visited);
}

// The main function that returns count of islands in a given boolean
// 2D matrix
int countIslands(int M[][COL])
{
// Make a bool array to mark visited cells.
// Initially all cells are unvisited
bool visited[ROW][COL];
memset(visited, 0, sizeof(visited));

// Initialize count as 0 and travese through the all cells of
// given matrix
int count = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < ROW; ++i)
for (int j = 0; j < COL; ++j)
if (M[i][j] && !visited[i][j]) // If a cell with value 1 is not
{                         // visited yet, then new island found
DFS(M, i, j, visited);     // Visit all cells in this island.
++count;                   // and increment island count
}

return count;
}

// Driver program to test above function
int main()
{
int M[][COL]= {  {1, 1, 0, 0, 0},
{0, 1, 0, 0, 1},
{1, 0, 0, 1, 1},
{0, 0, 0, 0, 0},
{1, 0, 1, 0, 1}
};

printf("Number of islands is: %d\n", countIslands(M));

return 0;
}
```

## Java

```// Java program to count islands in boolean 2D matrix
import java.util.*;
import java.lang.*;
import java.io.*;

class Islands
{
//No of rows and columns
static final int ROW = 5, COL = 5;

// A function to check if a given cell (row, col) can
// be included in DFS
boolean isSafe(int M[][], int row, int col,
boolean visited[][])
{
// row number is in range, column number is in range
// and value is 1 and not yet visited
return (row >= 0) && (row < ROW) &&
(col >= 0) && (col < COL) &&
(M[row][col]==1 && !visited[row][col]);
}

// A utility function to do DFS for a 2D boolean matrix.
// It only considers the 8 neighbors as adjacent vertices
void DFS(int M[][], int row, int col, boolean visited[][])
{
// These arrays are used to get row and column numbers
// of 8 neighbors of a given cell
int rowNbr[] = new int[] {-1, -1, -1,  0, 0,  1, 1, 1};
int colNbr[] = new int[] {-1,  0,  1, -1, 1, -1, 0, 1};

// Mark this cell as visited
visited[row][col] = true;

// Recur for all connected neighbours
for (int k = 0; k < 8; ++k)
if (isSafe(M, row + rowNbr[k], col + colNbr[k], visited) )
DFS(M, row + rowNbr[k], col + colNbr[k], visited);
}

// The main function that returns count of islands in a given
//  boolean 2D matrix
int countIslands(int M[][])
{
// Make a bool array to mark visited cells.
// Initially all cells are unvisited
boolean visited[][] = new boolean[ROW][COL];

// Initialize count as 0 and travese through the all cells
// of given matrix
int count = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < ROW; ++i)
for (int j = 0; j < COL; ++j)
if (M[i][j]==1 && !visited[i][j]) // If a cell with
{                                 // value 1 is not
// visited yet, then new island found, Visit all
// cells in this island and increment island count
DFS(M, i, j, visited);
++count;
}

return count;
}

// Driver method
public static void main (String[] args) throws java.lang.Exception
{
int M[][]=  new int[][] {{1, 1, 0, 0, 0},
{0, 1, 0, 0, 1},
{1, 0, 0, 1, 1},
{0, 0, 0, 0, 0},
{1, 0, 1, 0, 1}
};
Islands I = new Islands();
System.out.println("Number of islands is: "+ I.countIslands(M));
}
} //Contributed by Aakash Hasija
```

## Python

```# Program to count islands in boolean 2D matrix
class Graph:

def __init__(self, row, col, g):
self.ROW = row
self.COL = col
self.graph = g

# A function to check if a given cell
# (row, col) can be included in DFS
def isSafe(self, i, j, visited):
# row number is in range, column number
# is in range and value is 1
# and not yet visited
return (i >= 0 and i < self.ROW and
j >= 0 and j < self.COL and
not visited[i][j] and self.graph[i][j])

# A utility function to do DFS for a 2D
# boolean matrix. It only considers
# the 8 neighbours as adjacent vertices
def DFS(self, i, j, visited):

# These arrays are used to get row and
# column numbers of 8 neighbours
# of a given cell
rowNbr = [-1, -1, -1,  0, 0,  1, 1, 1];
colNbr = [-1,  0,  1, -1, 1, -1, 0, 1];

# Mark this cell as visited
visited[i][j] = True

# Recur for all connected neighbours
for k in range(8):
if self.isSafe(i + rowNbr[k], j + colNbr[k], visited):
self.DFS(i + rowNbr[k], j + colNbr[k], visited)

# The main function that returns
# count of islands in a given boolean
# 2D matrix
def countIslands(self):
# Make a bool array to mark visited cells.
# Initially all cells are unvisited
visited = [[False for j in range(self.COL)]for i in range(self.ROW)]

# Initialize count as 0 and travese
# through the all cells of
# given matrix
count = 0
for i in range(self.ROW):
for j in range(self.COL):
# If a cell with value 1 is not visited yet,
# then new island found
if visited[i][j] == False and self.graph[i][j] ==1:
# Visit all cells in this island
# and increment island count
self.DFS(i, j, visited)
count += 1

return count

graph = [[1, 1, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 0, 0, 1],
[1, 0, 0, 1, 1],
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[1, 0, 1, 0, 1]]

row = len(graph)
col = len(graph[0])

g= Graph(row, col, graph)

print "Number of islands is :"
print g.countIslands()

#This code is contributed by Neelam Yadav
```

Output:

`Number of islands is: 5`

Time complexity: O(ROW x COL)

Find the number of Islands | Set 2 (Using Disjoint Set)

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