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What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast?

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  • Last Updated : 31 Jul, 2022
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A delta is a wetland formed when a river empties its water and sediment into another body of water, such as the sea, lake, or any other body of water.

The east coastal plain is a large area of ‚Äč‚ÄčIndia between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. This coast is wider and flatter than the West Coast Plains, it extends from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the north, passing through Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. These plains are drained by the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri rivers.

Generally, Alluvial soil is found in the river deltas of the east coast. This soil is especially found in the deltas of the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri rivers. The alluvial soils are mostly founded due to the silt deposited by Indo- Gangetic- Brahmaputra rivers. Wave action is another important reason for this type of soil formation. The parental materials of this soil are transported from the origin as rocks of the Himalayas form the main parent material. They are one of the largest soil groups covering 46 percent of the total area. By supporting more than 40 percent of the Indian population due to being one of the most agriculturally productive lands.

Main features of Alluvial Soil

  • Alluvial soil is deposited by the three major Himalayan river systems, Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Indus. Alluvial plains are formed by the sediments left by the river as it flows from upstream to downstream. This soil is porous and has a light texture.
  •  This soil is very fertile in nature because it is rich in minerals and essential nutrients. This soil is composed of many substances such as fine silt and clay particles. Due to its loamy nature, this soil is porous. Alluvial soil is enriched by potassium and phosphoric acid. The nitrogen content of this soil is usually low. 
  • The alluvium is the most important and most common soil. Alluvial soil is mostly regular and flat type. Therefore, this soil is ideal for agriculture. Wheat, rice, paddy, tobacco, cotton, sugar cane, jute, corn, vegetables, and fruits are crops grown in alluvial soil. Alluvial soil productivity and mineral content depend on their age.
  • They are immature and with weak profiles due to recent origins.
  • Sandy and clayey soils are not uncommon textures for this type of soil.
  • Kankar beds are present in some regions along with river terraces.
  • Due to an equal proportion of sand and clay, this type of soil has a porous texture and loamy nature.
  • Texture and porosity provide good drainage and other conditions for favorable agriculture.
  • Recurrent floods replenished the soil often.

Types of Alluvial Soil

The alluvial plain is also geographically divided. The geographical divisions of this soil are as follows: Bhabar, Tarai, Bhangar, and Khadar.

Khadar soil is more fertile than Bhangar, and Khadar-type alluvial soil has finer particles. Cancanodules are found in higher concentrations in Khadar soils than in Bhangar-type alluvial soil.

Sample Question

Question 1: Write about the different types of soil.


Different soil types are exposed to different environmental stresses. Soil is mainly categorized by its texture, its proportions, and its various forms of organic and mineral composition.

Soil is classified into four main categories :

  1. Sandy Soil
  2. Slit Soil
  3. Clay Soil
  4. Loamy Soil

Question 2: What are the main crops produced on the eastern coast?


The main crop cultivated in the Eastern Ghats is rice, which is also the staple food of the people living in the area. In the Kaveri river Delta region, three cycles of rice cultivation are carried out a year. Other crops that are produced in the eastern coastal plain are flax seeds, wheat, jowar, grams, and peanuts.

Question 3: How many states come under the eastern coast plain?


The Eastern Ghats are spreading over a wide area of Indian land. The Eastern Ghats pass through the province of Orissa in Andhra Pradesh, reach Tamil Nadu in the south, and pass through parts of Karnataka and Telangana.

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