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What are the Important Characteristics of Arid Soil in India?

Last Updated : 17 Jul, 2023
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Arid soils have certain floor horizons which have numerous specific characteristics. Arid soil can be classified into sets of soils on the basis of the aridisol order of USDA classification. Some important characteristics of arid soil include that its colors are purple and brown, its texture is sandy, it is saline in nature, and also lacks moisture as well as humus. Arid soils that are not fertile in nature are characterized with the aid of water deficiencies and also contain excessive amounts of gypsum, sodium, and calcium carbonates.

The free material or the upper layer of the mantle rock (regolith – a layer of free, heterogeneous material covering strong stone) comprising mostly of tiny particles and humus which can uphold the development of plants is known as “soil”. Soil predominantly comprises mineral/rock particles, bits of rotted natural matter, soil water, soil air, and living life forms. The central point that impacts the arrangement of soil is parent material, help, environment, vegetation, living things, and time.

Important Characteristics of Arid Soil in India

Important Characteristics of Arid Soil in India

Arid Soil in India

Bone-dry or desert soils will be soils that have no water accessible to mesophotic plants for extensive stretches. They have frequently pitifully evolved, shallow, and skeletal A-C or A-R profiles besides in the marshes where soils are more profound because of colluviation and alluviation. The fundamental factors that influence their arrangement and advancement are the absence of water, significant day-to-day temperature varieties, emptying by wind, and microorganisms living on dew. Physical enduring is unmistakable in the hyper-dry and parched zones yet is steadily supplanted by synthetic enduring and arrangement precipitation processes in the semi-bone-dry zone.

The dirt of bone-dry regions shows various trademark elements, for example, desert asphalt, desert patina, vesicular layer, and a noticeable CaCO3 reallocation in the profile; the last option is communicated by the gathering of auxiliary calcium carbonate under the type of individual knobs or of a ceaseless hull (caliche). At the point when present, salts go into an arrangement, reallocate and aggregate in the profile.

Characteristics of Arid Soil in India

Important characteristics of arid soil in India are as follows:

Precipitation and Moisture Supply

The precipitation system in desert regions is portrayed by low, sporadic, and unusual precipitation, frequently gathered in a couple of rainstorms. They get dampness the dirt for a brief period and over a restricted region; quite a long while may slip by between progressive rainfalls. In semi-parched regions, this abnormality and unconventionality steadily vanish. 

The dampness provided to the dirt from downpours is balanced by vanishing; the last option is upgraded by low air mugginess, high sun-based radiation, and high air temperature. The outcome is a restricted disintegration of solvent-essential minerals and the improvement of just a shallow, skeletal soil with a powerless profile separation. In view of the unpredictable precipitation, dissemination means precipitation values have close to nothing significance in the (semi)- bone-dry zone, while possibly not likewise the reach. 


Air temperatures in dry zones are by and large high and show significant varieties constantly which, under specific circumstances, may go to 40° C or more. In light of the shortfall of a defensive vegetative cover and explicit warm retention furthermore, desorption impacts the stone surface, air temperatures of 35-45° C might arrive at tops up to 50-60° C or more on the dirt or rock surface.

Air temperature varieties are sensibly all around reflected at the dirt surface however vanish quickly from top to bottom. At 50 cm profundity, everyday varieties are totally waved away, and just occasional vacillations can be noticed. Practically comparable circumstances happen in hard united rocks. Those, in spite of the fact that having a to some degree higher warm conductivity than free materials, don’t consider a high warm entrance. In rocks, warm slopes are in the request for 5° to 10° C per 10 cm.


Climatic dew is a substantially less significant dampness source than precipitation. In spite of the fact that there are models known about superior germination and early plant development because of dewfall, the significant impact of this dampness source is connected to the advancement of microbiological action and the impacts of salt hydration. 

Dew perceptions are uncommon, chiefly as a result of the low amounts enlisted each dew night (in the request for 0.2-1 mm water each evening) and the trouble to quantify them. Dew, as opposed to precipitation, focuses on a sluggish cycle on the dirt surface during the night and early morning when dissipation is diminished to a base. the activity is stringently restricted to the upper few mm to the most extreme 1 cm of the dirt or rock surface, but since dew consolidates and stays on a superficial level for quite a while it assumes a significant part in the initiation and effect of microorganisms.


On a desert surface with practically zero security from vegetation, the impacts of wind activity might be significant. On account of varieties in air pressure winds are frequently areas of strength for extreme, during the day.

Wind activity alludes to 4 significant cycles that, somehow, influence soil arrangement:

  1. Flattening
  2. Scraped spot and disintegration,
  3. Transport
  4. Collection

Emptying is the interaction by which soil particles are taken up by the breeze and dislodged to another area. The interaction is impacted by wind speed, the nature of the dirt surface,
what’s more, molecule size or total status of the surface.

The following are the significant characteristics of arid soil: 

  • Generally, the parched soil is red and brown in variety and sandy on the surface.
  • Naturally, it is saline. Inferable from the presence of a dry environment and high temperature, dissipation happens at a quicker rate. This dirt needs humus and dampness.
  • Because of the high calcium content, the base skyline of this dirt is involved by ‘Kankar’ which limits the penetration of water through the dirt.
  • The dirt contains a lot of solvent salts. Because of the dry environment and nonappearance of vegetation, it likewise contains an extremely low level of natural matter.
  • The dirt is antacid in nature as there is no precipitation to wash dissolvable salts.
  • This dirt is extremely barren, however, with appropriate composts and water systems, the dry season safe and salt lenient dry yields like grain, cotton, wheat, millets, maize, beats, and so on, can be developed.
  • After a legitimate water system, this dirt becomes cultivable as has been on account in western Rajasthan.
  • Bone-dry soils are most described by their water inadequacies. Most parched soils contain adequate measures of water to help plant development for right around 90 sequential days.
  • Parched soils ordinarily contain elevated degrees of calcium carbonates, gypsum, as well as sodium.
  • This dirt is typically not appropriate for significant harvest creation owing to fractional dampness content and collected solvent salts. In any case, if appropriately overseen and flooded, it can become useful. We have a few remarkable soils on the planet which are named dry soils, they are prominent for their interesting ripeness.

Related Links

  1. Soil Formation
  2. Types of soil
  3. Soil Conservation Methods

FAQs on Arid Soil

Q 1. What are the characteristics of arid soil in India?


Arid soils are found in areas where precipitation is very low, the temperature is high and evaporation is faster making it lack in amount of moisture as well as humus.

Q 2. What is the importance of arid soil?


The importance of arid soil is that they help the growth of drought-resistant and salt-tolerant dry crops like cotton, wheat, barley, and so forth.

Q 3. What are the 3 characteristics of arid land?


The 3 important characteristics of arid land are as follows:

  1. Persistent water scarcity
  2. Frequent droughts
  3. High climatic variability

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