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How can you say that the northern plains have diverse relief features?

Last Updated : 12 Jun, 2023
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The northern plain has been framed by the interaction of the three significant river systems, to be specific the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra alongside their tributaries. Northern plains are spread over an area of seven lakh square kilometers. The plain being around 2400 Km long and 240 to 320 Km expansive, is a thickly populated physiographic division. With a rich soil cover combined with a sufficient water supply and an ideal environment, it is agriculturally an extremely useful part of India. Northern plains are divided into 4 regions which are on the basis of their relief. They have been listed below:

  1. Bhabar
  2. Terai
  3. Bhangar
  4. Khadar
Diverse Relief Features of Northern Plains

Diverse Relief Features of Northern Plains

Diverse Relief Features of Northern Plains

Northern plains are alluvial plains framed by the deposition of residue brought downstream by the rivers. Based on the variations in relief, they can be partitioned into four regions:

  1. Bhabar Region: The streams in the wake of sliding down from the mountain, deposit pebbles in a tight belt parallel to the slants of Shivaliks. The stream vanishes in this belt as the bhabar plain.
  2. Terai Plains:  Below the Bhabar region, the streams and rivers reappear and make a wet, damp, and mucky land called Terai which is thickly forested and wealthy in natural life.
  3. Bhangar plains: A huge part of Bhangar is comprised of more established alluvium which lies over the flood fields. The soil here isn’t fruitful and contains a calcareous residue called Kankar.
  4. Khadar plains: The new and young stores of flood fields found in the lower part of the river valley are called khadar. These are exceptionally fertile and recharged consistently by flood and are appropriate for intensive cultivation.

Northern Plains and Types

  • Punjab Plain: The Punjab Plain is a fertile alluvial marsh located towards the west of the Yamuna River and to the north of the Rajasthan desert. The area is shaped of residue brought by the Himalayan streams. The plain is surrounded by Shivaliks ranges in the north, the Rajasthan desert in the south, Pakistan in the west, and Delhi Ridge in the east.
  • The Ganga Plain: Reach out from the Yamuna River in the west toward the western boundaries of Bangladesh. The distance covered is around 1400 kilometres. 
    Areas: Ganga-Yamuna doab, Awadh Plains, and Mithila Plains. Both bhabar and Terai belts are very much formed in the Uttar Pradesh plain.
  • Brahmaputra Plain: Stretch out in Assam for around 640 km. Formed by deposits from the Brahmaputra stream and its feeders. In certain spots, steeply rising hillocks are found. There are various riverine islands-Majuli, the biggest stream island on the planet. 
  • Delta Area: The Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta is the world’s biggest delta. This delta is otherwise called the Sundarbans. It stretches out in the West Bengal and Bangladesh. It is perhaps one of the most fertile areas on the planet and is known as the Green Delta. The delta extends from the Hooghly River belt to the Meghna River. It is around 350 km wide at the Bay of Bengal. Kolkata and Haldia are the chief ports on the river banks in the delta of India.

Significance of Northern Plains

Some important significance of northern plains include:

  1. Generally great for human settlement: fertile soil, numerous streams, and a good environment. 
  2. Numerous multi-purpose dams were built for the Arrangement of water for irrigation, and production power. 
  3. They hold social and religious importance: Tremendous literature, art and engineering, and holy rivers. The rivers in the region are safe which permits simple transportation and subsequently, advances trade and business.

Related Links

  1. Northern Plains of India
  2. Physical features of India
  3. Relief features of India

FAQs on  Northern Plains And Diverse Relief Features

Q 1. Why do the northern plains have diverse relief features?


Three important rivers and many other small rivers flows through this region and the relief features helps in rainfall and hence in availability of water.

Q 2. What are the three major rivers involved in the formation of the northern plain?


  • The Indus river
  • The Ganga
  • The Brahmaputra

Q 3. What is the total area of the Northern plains of India?


The total area of the northern plains is spread around 7 lakh kilometers. The total length is about 2400 km and about 240 to 320 km broad.

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