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Which are the two main Climatic Factors responsible for Soil Formation?

Last Updated : 09 Jan, 2023
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Soil is formed when there is collision and accumulation of organic matter being washed down and deposited in form of clay or other mall particles. This leads to soil formation. There are multiple factors that affect the formation of soil like wind, locality, parent material, climate, rain, deposition, etc. The formation of soil is a gradual and slow process in which the rock is broken down through the actions of various factors like rain, wind water current, etc. The collection or accumulation of these materials through wind or water also helps in the soil formation process. 

Two main factors Affecting Soil Formation

The two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation are said to be Rainfall and Temperature.  The region’s climate may indirectly affect the soil formation process as the climate has a huge impact on the microorganisms present in the region. Rainfall and temperature also have a huge impact on soil formation. With the increase in temperature and rainfall, soil formation also increases as when the temperature and rainfall increase; it leads to higher weathering which aids in soil formation and development. 

Weathering is the process of breaking down the rocks and minerals present on the earth’s surface to form soil. Weathering is caused by the actions of water, ice, acid, animals, and plants. These causes are also referred to as Weathering Agents. Once the rock is broken down it undergoes erosion. Weathering can be a physical or chemical, or biological process. 

Moisture or water content is one of the main factors for the type of soil formed. The water content is affected by both the climate and rainfall. For example for the formation of clay-type soil the water content in the area should be high it is possible only if the rainfall is more and the temperatures are moderate or cool. For example, clay soil is widely found in India in the states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, both these places receive high rainfall and the temperature is moderate. If we consider the case of Rajasthan the soil in this region is very loose or like sand, it is due to the harsh climates, low rainfall, and high winds the rocks get broken down into very tiny particles and there is no water to hold the particles together.    

With the increase in Rainfall in the area, there is a high increase in the organic matter content of the place. This leads to a decrease in the pH of the land and increases the leaching of ions and clays. With high organic matter and low pH, the place is suitable for the growth of bacteria or other microorganisms. This leads to biological weathering and increases the weathering process. The type of parent material used is also an important factor for the soil formation but in places with high temperatures and rainfall, the soil formed is of a similar type even if there is any change in Parent Material.  

FAQs On Soil Formation

Question 1: What is the process of soil formation known as?

Answer:

The process of soil formation is known as weathering.

Question 2: Explain the soil formation process.

Answer:

Soil is formed when there is collision and accumulation of organic matter being washed down and deposited in form of clay or other mall particles. This leads to soil formation. The formation of soil is a gradual and slow process in which the rock is broken down through the actions of various factors like rain, wind water current, etc. The collection or accumulation of these materials through wind or water also helps in the soil formation process. 

Question 3: What are the various factors influencing soil formation?

Answer:

There are multiple factors that affect the formation of soil like wind, locality, parent material, climate, rain, deposition, etc. The collection or accumulation of these materials through wind or water also helps in the soil formation process.

Question 4: What is the composition of soil?

Answer:

 The composition of soil consists of minerals, organic matter, water, and air.


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