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What are the Biotic and Abiotic resources?

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Biotic and abiotic resources are the two most important factors which are responsible for helping to shape the ecosystem. Biotic factors refer to all the living creatures which are present in the ecosystem and abiotic factors are those non-living components that include physical conditions and chemical agents present in the ecosystem. Both biotic and abiotic factors are important for the survival and sustenance of the reproduction processes. Both biotic and abiotic factors are reliant on each other and supposed to remove or alter one factor, the immediate repercussions can be faced by the whole ecosystem. Hence, abiotic factors do affect directly the survival of any species.

Biotic Vs Abiotic resources

Biotic Vs Abiotic Resources

Biotic Meaning

The term “biotic” consists of two terms: “bio” meaning “living organism” and “ic” meaning “similar”, collectively known as a living organism. Therefore, all living things that exist on Earth can also be defined as biotic factors because they are known as living things. Their presence and biological by-products affect the composition of the ecosystem. Biological factors apply to all living organisms, from animals and humans to plants, fungi, and bacteria. In order to satisfy basic needs such as the reproduction and food of each species, interactions between different biological factors are necessary.

For example plants, animals, humans, decomposers, yeasts, insects, etc. All these biological components interact to develop new generations. That is, they reproduce new organisms to maintain stability in the food chain.

Examples Of Biotic Factors


  • The organisms that can produce their own food through photosynthesis are producers. For example, plants, algae, and bacteria.
  • They get their energy source from abiotic factors such as sunlight, humidity, water, etc. Because all these factors are important for proper food synthesis.
  • For food synthesis, chlorophyll involves in the process absorbs the abiotic factors.  Some synthetic foods are only used by producers for proper function and growth.


  • Consumers depend on other living things for energy and food. Autotrophs are their main energy source. 
  • To survive, you must eat other living organisms. Thus, they develop symbiotic relationships with other organisms.   Consumers can be of different types such as herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores.
  • Primary Consumers:  Herbivores are animals that eat green plants and trees. They are directly dependent on producers. Example: cow, goat, etc.
  • Secondary Consumers: Consumers who feed on primary consumers are known as secondary consumers. Example: lion, tiger, etc.


  • A living organism that breaks down or decomposes the carcasses of plants and animals is called a decomposer. 
  •  They are heterotrophs in nature.  
  • Examples: mold, bacteria, etc.  
  • Decomposers are known as reducing agents because they secrete enzymes for the process of decay.


  • Organisms that feed on dead and decaying organisms are known as Detritivores.
  • Receives the lowest amount of energy after feeding.

Abiotic Meaning

The term abiotic refers to any non-living element present in the ecosystem. Sunlight, water, and soil make up biotic factors. Abiotic factors refer to chemical and physical factors that exist in all inanimate objects: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the lithosphere. Sunlight, air, precipitation, minerals, and soil are just a few examples of biotic factors. These factors have a significant impact on the survival and reproduction of species in an ecosystem.  

For example, an autotrophic organism may not survive without sufficient sunlight. If this organism eventually dies, it will result in food shortages for key consumers. This effect travels down the food chain and affects all organisms. Therefore, it causes an imbalance in the ecosystem.

Examples of Biotic and Abiotic resources

Examples of Biotic and Abiotic Resources

Examples Of Abiotic Factors


Climate refers to the weather conditions and the overall temperature of an ecosystem. It plays a huge role in maintaining ecosystems through temperature and weather regulation. Because all organisms living in an ecosystem evolve to adapt to that ecosystem,  even a small change in climate can have a serious impact on the lives of the organisms living there.

 pH Balance

Ecosystem pH balance refers to the overall acidity or alkalinity level of the environment. A scientific method of determining whether a particular mixture or solution is acidic, neutral, or alkaline. Pure water has a pH of 7, meaning neutral. Acidic mixtures have a pH balance of less than 7, while alkaline mixtures have a pH balance of 7 or more. This also affects the organisms in the environment, as many organisms, plants, or microbes cannot survive in a particular pH range.


It may be interesting to note that something as simple as the level of light present in an environment or ecosystem can have a huge impact on the organisms in that ecosystem. As you know, photosynthesis is the main form of energy consumption in plants. In other words, all plants need some level of light to produce their own nutrition. Some plants in dark ecosystems have evolved to a point where they can survive with minimal light, such as those living in deep seas where light cannot reach them.

Water Currents

In aquatic or marine ecosystems, water currents play a large role in regulating ecosystems. Water currents are one of the most important and beneficial parts of the marine ecosystem, and also one of the most destructive. They are important because they redistribute minerals, nutrients, heat, oxygen, and more. However, strong currents can also uproot and displace plants and other organisms that destroy parts of an ecosystem and carry food sources to other parts of the ecosystem. 

Difference Between Biotic Resources and Abiotic Resources

CriteriaBiotic ResourcesAbiotic Resources
DefinitionBiotic resources encompass the living organisms in the ecosystem.Abiotic resources refer to the non-living, which are physical conditions and chemical factors which influence the ecosystem.
OriginBiotic components originate from biosphere.Abiotic components originate from the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.
DependenceBiotic resources depend on abiotic resources for survival as well as reproduction.Abiotic factors are independent of biotic factors.
ExamplesFlora and FaunaSunlight, pH level, temperature, precipitation, etc.

FAQs on Biotic and Abiotic Resources

Q 1. What are biotic resources?


Biotic resources are the living components that are present in the ecosystem and include flora and fauna.

Q 2. State a few examples of biotic resources.


A few examples of biotic resources include:

  1. Animals
  2. Plants
  3. Microorganisms

Q 3. What are abiotic resources?


Abiotic resources refers to those non-living components which are present in the ecosystem and comprises of physical as well as chemical factors.

Q 4. State a few examples of abiotic resources.


A few examples of abiotic resources include:

  1. Climate
  2. Precipitation
  3. Wind
  4. Altitude

Last Updated : 16 Jun, 2023
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