# Sort an array in wave form

• Difficulty Level : Medium
• Last Updated : 18 May, 2021

Given an unsorted array of integers, sort the array into a wave like array. An array ‘arr[0..n-1]’ is sorted in wave form if arr >= arr <= arr >= arr <= arr >= …..

Examples:

Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready.  To complete your preparation from learning a language to DS Algo and many more,  please refer Complete Interview Preparation Course.

In case you wish to attend live classes with experts, please refer DSA Live Classes for Working Professionals and Competitive Programming Live for Students.

``` Input:  arr[] = {10, 5, 6, 3, 2, 20, 100, 80}
Output: arr[] = {10, 5, 6, 2, 20, 3, 100, 80} OR
{20, 5, 10, 2, 80, 6, 100, 3} OR
any other array that is in wave form

Input:  arr[] = {20, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2}
Output: arr[] = {20, 8, 10, 4, 6, 2} OR
{10, 8, 20, 2, 6, 4} OR
any other array that is in wave form

Input:  arr[] = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20}
Output: arr[] = {4, 2, 8, 6, 20, 10} OR
any other array that is in wave form

Input:  arr[] = {3, 6, 5, 10, 7, 20}
Output: arr[] = {6, 3, 10, 5, 20, 7} OR
any other array that is in wave form
```

A Simple Solution is to use sorting. First sort the input array, then swap all adjacent elements.
For example, let the input array be {3, 6, 5, 10, 7, 20}. After sorting, we get {3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 20}. After swapping adjacent elements, we get {5, 3, 7, 6, 20, 10}.

Below are implementations of this simple approach.

## C++

 `// A C++ program to sort an array in wave form using``// a sorting function``#include``#include``using` `namespace` `std;` `// A utility method to swap two numbers.``void` `swap(``int` `*x, ``int` `*y)``{``    ``int` `temp = *x;``    ``*x = *y;``    ``*y = temp;``}` `// This function sorts arr[0..n-1] in wave form, i.e.,``// arr >= arr <= arr >= arr <= arr >= arr..``void` `sortInWave(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n)``{``    ``// Sort the input array``    ``sort(arr, arr+n);` `    ``// Swap adjacent elements``    ``for` `(``int` `i=0; i

## Java

 `// Java implementation of naive method for sorting``// an array in wave form.``import` `java.util.*;` `class` `SortWave``{``    ``// A utility method to swap two numbers.``    ``void` `swap(``int` `arr[], ``int` `a, ``int` `b)``    ``{``        ``int` `temp = arr[a];``        ``arr[a] = arr[b];``        ``arr[b] = temp;``    ``}` `    ``// This function sorts arr[0..n-1] in wave form, i.e.,``    ``// arr >= arr <= arr >= arr <= arr..``    ``void` `sortInWave(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n)``    ``{``        ``// Sort the input array``        ``Arrays.sort(arr);` `        ``// Swap adjacent elements``        ``for` `(``int` `i=``0``; i

## Python

 `# Python function to sort the array arr[0..n-1] in wave form,``# i.e., arr >= arr <= arr >= arr <= arr >= arr``def` `sortInWave(arr, n):``    ` `    ``#sort the array``    ``arr.sort()``   ` `    ``# Swap adjacent elements``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``0``,n``-``1``,``2``):``        ``arr[i], arr[i``+``1``] ``=` `arr[i``+``1``], arr[i]` `# Driver program``arr ``=` `[``10``, ``90``, ``49``, ``2``, ``1``, ``5``, ``23``]``sortInWave(arr, ``len``(arr))``for` `i ``in` `range``(``0``,``len``(arr)):``    ``print` `arr[i],``    ` `# This code is contributed by __Devesh Agrawal__`

## C#

 `// C# implementation of naive method``// for sorting an array in wave form.``using` `System;` `class` `SortWave {``    ` `    ``// A utility method to swap two numbers.``    ``void` `swap(``int``[] arr, ``int` `a, ``int` `b)``    ``{``        ``int` `temp = arr[a];``        ``arr[a] = arr[b];``        ``arr[b] = temp;``    ``}` `    ``// This function sorts arr[0..n-1] in wave form, i.e.,``    ``// arr >= arr <= arr >= arr <= arr..``    ``void` `sortInWave(``int``[] arr, ``int` `n)``    ``{``        ``// Sort the input array``        ``Array.Sort(arr);` `        ``// Swap adjacent elements``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n - 1; i += 2)``            ``swap(arr, i, i + 1);``    ``}` `    ``// Driver method``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main()``    ``{``        ``SortWave ob = ``new` `SortWave();``        ``int``[] arr = { 10, 90, 49, 2, 1, 5, 23 };``        ``int` `n = arr.Length;``        ` `        ``ob.sortInWave(arr, n);``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)``        ``Console.Write(arr[i] + ``" "``);``    ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by vt_m.`

## Javascript

 ``

Output:

`2 1 10 5 49 23 90`

The time complexity of the above solution is O(nLogn) if a O(nLogn) sorting algorithm like Merge Sort, Heap Sort, .. etc is used.
This can be done in O(n) time by doing a single traversal of given array. The idea is based on the fact that if we make sure that all even positioned (at index 0, 2, 4, ..) elements are greater than their adjacent odd elements, we don’t need to worry about odd positioned element. Following are simple steps.
1) Traverse all even positioned elements of input array, and do following.
….a) If current element is smaller than previous odd element, swap previous and current.
….b) If current element is smaller than next odd element, swap next and current.

Below are implementations of above simple algorithm.

## C++

 `// A O(n) program to sort an input array in wave form``#include``using` `namespace` `std;` `// A utility method to swap two numbers.``void` `swap(``int` `*x, ``int` `*y)``{``    ``int` `temp = *x;``    ``*x = *y;``    ``*y = temp;``}` `// This function sorts arr[0..n-1] in wave form, i.e., arr >=``// arr <= arr >= arr <= arr >= arr ....``void` `sortInWave(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n)``{``    ``// Traverse all even elements``    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i+=2)``    ``{``        ``// If current even element is smaller than previous``        ``if` `(i>0 && arr[i-1] > arr[i] )``            ``swap(&arr[i], &arr[i-1]);` `        ``// If current even element is smaller than next``        ``if` `(i

## Java

 `// A O(n) Java program to sort an input array in wave form``class` `SortWave``{``    ``// A utility method to swap two numbers.``    ``void` `swap(``int` `arr[], ``int` `a, ``int` `b)``    ``{``        ``int` `temp = arr[a];``        ``arr[a] = arr[b];``        ``arr[b] = temp;``    ``}` `    ``// This function sorts arr[0..n-1] in wave form, i.e.,``    ``// arr >= arr <= arr >= arr <= arr....``    ``void` `sortInWave(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n)``    ``{``        ``// Traverse all even elements``        ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; i < n; i+=``2``)``        ``{``            ``// If current even element is smaller``            ``// than previous``            ``if` `(i>``0` `&& arr[i-``1``] > arr[i] )``                ``swap(arr, i-``1``, i);` `            ``// If current even element is smaller``            ``// than next``            ``if` `(i

## Python

 `# Python function to sort the array arr[0..n-1] in wave form,``# i.e., arr >= arr <= arr >= arr <= arr >= arr``def` `sortInWave(arr, n):``    ` `    ``# Traverse all even elements``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``0``, n, ``2``):``        ` `        ``# If current even element is smaller than previous``        ``if` `(i> ``0` `and` `arr[i] < arr[i``-``1``]):``            ``arr[i],arr[i``-``1``] ``=` `arr[i``-``1``],arr[i]``        ` `        ``# If current even element is smaller than next``        ``if` `(i < n``-``1` `and` `arr[i] < arr[i``+``1``]):``            ``arr[i],arr[i``+``1``] ``=` `arr[i``+``1``],arr[i]` `# Driver program``arr ``=` `[``10``, ``90``, ``49``, ``2``, ``1``, ``5``, ``23``]``sortInWave(arr, ``len``(arr))``for` `i ``in` `range``(``0``,``len``(arr)):``    ``print` `arr[i],``    ` `# This code is contributed by __Devesh Agrawal__`

## C#

 `// A O(n) C# program to sort an``// input array in wave form``using` `System;` `class` `SortWave {``    ` `    ``// A utility method to swap two numbers.``    ``void` `swap(``int``[] arr, ``int` `a, ``int` `b)``    ``{``        ``int` `temp = arr[a];``        ``arr[a] = arr[b];``        ``arr[b] = temp;``    ``}` `    ``// This function sorts arr[0..n-1] in wave form, i.e.,``    ``// arr >= arr <= arr >= arr <= arr....``    ``void` `sortInWave(``int``[] arr, ``int` `n)``    ``{``        ``// Traverse all even elements``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i += 2) {``            ` `            ``// If current even element is smaller``            ``// than previous``            ``if` `(i > 0 && arr[i - 1] > arr[i])``                ``swap(arr, i - 1, i);` `            ``// If current even element is smaller``            ``// than next``            ``if` `(i < n - 1 && arr[i] < arr[i + 1])``                ``swap(arr, i, i + 1);``        ``}``    ``}` `    ``// Driver program to test above function``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main()``    ``{``        ``SortWave ob = ``new` `SortWave();``        ``int``[] arr = { 10, 90, 49, 2, 1, 5, 23 };``        ``int` `n = arr.Length;``        ` `        ``ob.sortInWave(arr, n);``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)``        ``Console.Write(arr[i] + ``" "``);``    ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by vt_m.`

## Javascript

 ``

Output:

```90 10 49 1 5 2 23
```