Given an array that contains both positive and negative integers, find the product of the maximum product subarray. Expected Time complexity is O(n) and only O(1) extra space can be used.

**Examples:**

Input: arr[] = {6, -3, -10, 0, 2} Output: 180 // The subarray is {6, -3, -10} Input: arr[] = {-1, -3, -10, 0, 60} Output: 60 // The subarray is {60} Input: arr[] = {-2, -3, 0, -2, -40} Output: 80 // The subarray is {-2, -40}

The following solution assumes that the given input array always has a positive output. The solution works for all cases mentioned above. It doesn’t work for arrays like {0, 0, -20, 0}, {0, 0, 0}.. etc. The solution can be easily modified to handle this case.

It is similar to Largest Sum Contiguous Subarray problem. The only thing to note here is, maximum product can also be obtained by minimum (negative) product ending with the previous element multiplied by this element. For example, in array {12, 2, -3, -5, -6, -2}, when we are at element -2, the maximum product is multiplication of, minimum product ending with -6 and -2.

## C/C++

// C program to find Maximum Product Subarray #include <stdio.h> // Utility functions to get minimum of two integers int min (int x, int y) {return x < y? x : y; } // Utility functions to get maximum of two integers int max (int x, int y) {return x > y? x : y; } /* Returns the product of max product subarray. Assumes that the given array always has a subarray with product more than 1 */ int maxSubarrayProduct(int arr[], int n) { // max positive product ending at the current position int max_ending_here = 1; // min negative product ending at the current position int min_ending_here = 1; // Initialize overall max product int max_so_far = 1; /* Traverse through the array. Following values are maintained after the i'th iteration: max_ending_here is always 1 or some positive product ending with arr[i] min_ending_here is always 1 or some negative product ending with arr[i] */ for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) { /* If this element is positive, update max_ending_here. Update min_ending_here only if min_ending_here is negative */ if (arr[i] > 0) { max_ending_here = max_ending_here*arr[i]; min_ending_here = min (min_ending_here * arr[i], 1); } /* If this element is 0, then the maximum product cannot end here, make both max_ending_here and min_ending_here 0 Assumption: Output is alway greater than or equal to 1. */ else if (arr[i] == 0) { max_ending_here = 1; min_ending_here = 1; } /* If element is negative. This is tricky max_ending_here can either be 1 or positive. min_ending_here can either be 1 or negative. next min_ending_here will always be prev. max_ending_here * arr[i] next max_ending_here will be 1 if prev min_ending_here is 1, otherwise next max_ending_here will be prev min_ending_here * arr[i] */ else { int temp = max_ending_here; max_ending_here = max (min_ending_here * arr[i], 1); min_ending_here = temp * arr[i]; } // update max_so_far, if needed if (max_so_far < max_ending_here) max_so_far = max_ending_here; } return max_so_far; } // Driver Program to test above function int main() { int arr[] = {1, -2, -3, 0, 7, -8, -2}; int n = sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0]); printf("Maximum Sub array product is %d", maxSubarrayProduct(arr, n)); return 0; }

## Java

// Java program to find maximum product subarray import java.io.*; class ProductSubarray { // Utility functions to get minimum of two integers static int min (int x, int y) {return x < y? x : y; } // Utility functions to get maximum of two integers static int max (int x, int y) {return x > y? x : y; } /* Returns the product of max product subarray. Assumes that the given array always has a subarray with product more than 1 */ static int maxSubarrayProduct(int arr[]) { int n = arr.length; // max positive product ending at the current position int max_ending_here = 1; // min negative product ending at the current position int min_ending_here = 1; // Initialize overall max product int max_so_far = 1; /* Traverse through the array. Following values are maintained after the ith iteration: max_ending_here is always 1 or some positive product ending with arr[i] min_ending_here is always 1 or some negative product ending with arr[i] */ for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) { /* If this element is positive, update max_ending_here. Update min_ending_here only if min_ending_here is negative */ if (arr[i] > 0) { max_ending_here = max_ending_here*arr[i]; min_ending_here = min (min_ending_here * arr[i], 1); } /* If this element is 0, then the maximum product cannot end here, make both max_ending_here and min_ending _here 0 Assumption: Output is alway greater than or equal to 1. */ else if (arr[i] == 0) { max_ending_here = 1; min_ending_here = 1; } /* If element is negative. This is tricky max_ending_here can either be 1 or positive. min_ending_here can either be 1 or negative. next min_ending_here will always be prev. max_ending_here * arr[i] next max_ending_here will be 1 if prev min_ending_here is 1, otherwise next max_ending_here will be prev min_ending_here * arr[i] */ else { int temp = max_ending_here; max_ending_here = max (min_ending_here * arr[i], 1); min_ending_here = temp * arr[i]; } // update max_so_far, if needed if (max_so_far < max_ending_here) max_so_far = max_ending_here; } return max_so_far; } public static void main (String[] args) { int arr[] = {1, -2, -3, 0, 7, -8, -2}; System.out.println("Maximum Sub array product is "+ maxSubarrayProduct(arr)); } }/*This code is contributed by Devesh Agrawal*/

## Python

# Python program to find maximum product subarray # Returns the product of max product subarray. # Assumes that the given array always has a subarray # with product more than 1 def maxsubarrayproduct(arr): n = len(arr) # max positive product ending at the current position max_ending_here = 1 # min positive product ending at the current position min_ending_here = 1 # Initialize maximum so far max_so_far = 1 # Traverse throughout the array. Following values # are maintained after the ith iteration: # max_ending_here is always 1 or some positive product # ending with arr[i] # min_ending_here is always 1 or some negative product # ending with arr[i] for i in range(0,n): # If this element is positive, update max_ending_here. # Update min_ending_here only if min_ending_here is # negative if arr[i] > 0: max_ending_here = max_ending_here*arr[i] min_ending_here = min (min_ending_here * arr[i], 1) # If this element is 0, then the maximum product cannot # end here, make both max_ending_here and min_ending_here 0 # Assumption: Output is alway greater than or equal to 1. elif arr[i] == 0: max_ending_here = 1 min_ending_here = 1 # If element is negative. This is tricky # max_ending_here can either be 1 or positive. # min_ending_here can either be 1 or negative. # next min_ending_here will always be prev. # max_ending_here * arr[i] # next max_ending_here will be 1 if prev # min_ending_here is 1, otherwise # next max_ending_here will be prev min_ending_here * arr[i] else: temp = max_ending_here max_ending_here = max (min_ending_here * arr[i], 1) min_ending_here = temp * arr[i] if (max_so_far < max_ending_here): max_so_far = max_ending_here return max_so_far # Driver function to test above function arr = [1, -2, -3, 0, 7, -8, -2] print "Maximum product subarray is",maxsubarrayproduct(arr) # This code is contributed by Devesh Agrawal

## C#

// C# program to find maximum product subarray using System; class GFG { // Utility functions to get minimum of two integers static int min (int x, int y) {return x < y? x : y; } // Utility functions to get maximum of two integers static int max (int x, int y) {return x > y? x : y; } /* Returns the product of max product subarray. Assumes that the given array always has a subarray with product more than 1 */ static int maxSubarrayProduct(int []arr) { int n = arr.Length; // max positive product ending at the current // position int max_ending_here = 1; // min negative product ending at the current // position int min_ending_here = 1; // Initialize overall max product int max_so_far = 1; /* Traverse through the array. Following values are maintained after the ith iteration: max_ending_here is always 1 or some positive product ending with arr[i] min_ending_here is always 1 or some negative product ending with arr[i] */ for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) { /* If this element is positive, update max_ending_here. Update min_ending_here only if min_ending_here is negative */ if (arr[i] > 0) { max_ending_here = max_ending_here*arr[i]; min_ending_here = min (min_ending_here * arr[i], 1); } /* If this element is 0, then the maximum product cannot end here, make both max_ending_here and min_ending_here 0 Assumption: Output is alway greater than or equal to 1. */ else if (arr[i] == 0) { max_ending_here = 1; min_ending_here = 1; } /* If element is negative. This is tricky max_ending_here can either be 1 or positive. min_ending_here can either be 1 or negative. next min_ending_here will always be prev. max_ending_here * arr[i] next max_ending_here will be 1 if prev min_ending_here is 1, otherwise next max_ending_here will be prev min_ending_here * arr[i] */ else { int temp = max_ending_here; max_ending_here = max (min_ending_here * arr[i], 1); min_ending_here = temp * arr[i]; } // update max_so_far, if needed if (max_so_far < max_ending_here) max_so_far = max_ending_here; } return max_so_far; } public static void Main () { int []arr = {1, -2, -3, 0, 7, -8, -2}; Console.WriteLine("Maximum Sub array product is "+ maxSubarrayProduct(arr)); } } /*This code is contributed by vt_m*/

## PHP

<?php // php program to find Maximum Product // Subarray // Utility functions to get minimum of // two integers function minn ($x, $y) { return $x < $y? $x : $y; } // Utility functions to get maximum of // two integers function maxx ($x, $y) { return $x > $y? $x : $y; } /* Returns the product of max product subarray. Assumes that the given array always has a subarray with product more than 1 */ function maxSubarrayProduct($arr, $n) { // max positive product ending at // the current position $max_ending_here = 1; // min negative product ending at // the current position $min_ending_here = 1; // Initialize overall max product $max_so_far = 1; /* Traverse through the array. Following values are maintained after the i'th iteration: max_ending_here is always 1 or some positive product ending with arr[i] min_ending_here is always 1 or some negative product ending with arr[i] */ for ($i = 0; $i < $n; $i++) { /* If this element is positive, update max_ending_here. Update min_ending_here only if min_ending_here is negative */ if ($arr[$i] > 0) { $max_ending_here = $max_ending_here * $arr[$i]; $min_ending_here = min ($min_ending_here * $arr[$i], 1); } /* If this element is 0, then the maximum product cannot end here, make both max_ending_here and min_ending_here 0 Assumption: Output is alway greater than or equal to 1. */ else if ($arr[$i] == 0) { $max_ending_here = 1; $min_ending_here = 1; } /* If element is negative. This is tricky max_ending_here can either be 1 or positive. min_ending_here can either be 1 or negative. next min_ending_here will always be prev. max_ending_here * arr[i] next max_ending_here will be 1 if prev min_ending_here is 1, otherwise next max_ending_here will be prev min_ending_here * arr[i] */ else { $temp = $max_ending_here; $max_ending_here = max ($min_ending_here * $arr[$i], 1); $min_ending_here = $temp * $arr[$i]; } // update max_so_far, if needed if ($max_so_far < $max_ending_here) $max_so_far = $max_ending_here; } return $max_so_far; } // Driver Program to test above function $arr = array(1, -2, -3, 0, 7, -8, -2); $n = sizeof($arr) / sizeof($arr[0]); echo("Maximum Sub array product is "); echo (maxSubarrayProduct($arr, $n)); // This code is contributed by nitin mittal ?>

Output:

Maximum Sub array product is 112

Time Complexity: O(n)

Auxiliary Space: O(1)

This article is compiled by **Dheeraj Jain **and reviewed by GeeksforGeeks team. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above