# Katz Centrality (Centrality Measure)

In graph theory, the Katz centrality of a node is a measure of centrality in a network. It was introduced by Leo Katz in 1953 and is used to measure the relative degree of influence of an actor (or node) within a social network. Unlike typical centrality measures which consider only the shortest path (the geodesic) between a pair of actors, Katz centrality measures influence by taking into account the total number of walks between a pair of actors.

It is similar to Google’s PageRank and to the eigenvector centrality.

Measuring Katz centrality A simple social network: the nodes represent people or actors and the edges between nodes represent some relationship between actors

Katz centrality computes the relative influence of a node within a network by measuring the number of the immediate neighbors (first degree nodes) and also all other nodes in the network that connect to the node under consideration through these immediate neighbors. Connections made with distant neighbors are, however, penalized by an attenuation factor . Each path or connection between a pair of nodes is assigned a weight determined by and the distance between nodes as For example, in the figure on the right, assume that John’s centrality is being measured and that . The weight assigned to each link that connects John with his immediate neighbors Jane and Bob will be . Since Jose connects to John indirectly through Bob, the weight assigned to this connection (composed of two links) will be . Similarly, the weight assigned to the connection between Agneta and John through Aziz and Jane will be and the weight assigned to the connection between Agneta and John through Diego, Jose and Bob will be Mathematical formulation

Let A be the adjacency matrix of a network under consideration. Elements of A are variables that take a value 1 if a node i is connected to node j and 0 otherwise. The powers of A indicate the presence (or absence) of links between two nodes through intermediaries. For instance, in matrix , if element , it indicates that node 2 and node 12 are connected through some first and second degree neighbors of node 2. If denotes Katz centrality of a node i, then mathematically: Note that the above definition uses the fact that the element at location of the adjacency matrix raised to the power (i.e. ) reflects the total number of degree connections between nodes and . The value of the attenuation factor has to be chosen such that it is smaller than the reciprocal of the absolute value of the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix A. In this case the following expression can be used to calculate Katz centrality: Here is the identity matrix, is an identity vector of size n (n is the number of nodes) consisting of ones. denotes the transposed matrix of A and ( denotes matrix inversion of the term ( ).

Following is the code for the calculation of the Katz Centrality of the graph and its various nodes.

Implementation:

## Python

 def katz_centrality(G, alpha=0.1, beta=1.0,                     max_iter=1000, tol=1.0e-6,                     nstart=None, normalized=True,                     weight = 'weight'):     """Compute the Katz centrality for the nodes         of the graph G.         Katz centrality computes the centrality for a node     based on the centrality of its neighbors. It is a     generalization of the eigenvector centrality. The     Katz centrality for node i is       .. math::           x_i = \alpha \sum_{j} A_{ij} x_j + \beta,       where A is the adjacency matrix of the graph G     with eigenvalues \lambda.       The parameter \beta controls the initial centrality and       .. math::           \alpha < \frac{1}{\lambda_{max}}.         Katz centrality computes the relative influence of     a node within a network by measuring the number of     the immediate neighbors (first degree nodes) and     also all other nodes in the network that connect     to the node under consideration through these     immediate neighbors.       Extra weight can be provided to immediate neighbors     through the parameter :math:\beta. Connections     made with distant neighbors are, however, penalized     by an attenuation factor \alpha which should be     strictly less than the inverse largest eigenvalue     of the adjacency matrix in order for the Katz     centrality to be computed correctly.         Parameters     ----------     G : graph     A NetworkX graph       alpha : float     Attenuation factor       beta : scalar or dictionary, optional (default=1.0)     Weight attributed to the immediate neighborhood.     If not a scalar, the dictionary must have an value     for every node.       max_iter : integer, optional (default=1000)     Maximum number of iterations in power method.       tol : float, optional (default=1.0e-6)     Error tolerance used to check convergence in     power method iteration.       nstart : dictionary, optional     Starting value of Katz iteration for each node.       normalized : bool, optional (default=True)     If True normalize the resulting values.       weight : None or string, optional     If None, all edge weights are considered equal.     Otherwise holds the name of the edge attribute     used as weight.       Returns     -------     nodes : dictionary     Dictionary of nodes with Katz centrality as     the value.       Raises     ------     NetworkXError     If the parameter beta is not a scalar but     lacks a value for at least one node               Notes     -----           This algorithm it uses the power method to find     the eigenvector corresponding to the largest     eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of G.     The constant alpha should be strictly less than     the inverse of largest eigenvalue of the adjacency     matrix for the algorithm to converge.     The iteration will stop after max_iter iterations     or an error tolerance ofnumber_of_nodes(G)*tol     has been reached.       When \alpha = 1/\lambda_{max} and \beta=0,     Katz centrality is the same as eigenvector centrality.       For directed graphs this finds "left" eigenvectors     which corresponds to the in-edges in the graph.     For out-edges Katz centrality first reverse the     graph with G.reverse().             """     from math import sqrt       if len(G) == 0:         return {}       nnodes = G.number_of_nodes()       if nstart is None:           # choose starting vector with entries of 0         x = dict([(n,0) for n in G])     else:         x = nstart       try:         b = dict.fromkeys(G,float(beta))     except (TypeError,ValueError,AttributeError):         b = beta         if set(beta) != set(G):             raise nx.NetworkXError('beta dictionary '                                 'must have a value for every node')       # make up to max_iter iterations     for i in range(max_iter):         xlast = x         x = dict.fromkeys(xlast, 0)           # do the multiplication y^T = Alpha * x^T A - Beta         for n in x:             for nbr in G[n]:                 x[nbr] += xlast[n] * G[n][nbr].get(weight, 1)         for n in x:             x[n] = alpha*x[n] + b[n]           # check convergence         err = sum([abs(x[n]-xlast[n]) for n in x])         if err < nnodes*tol:             if normalized:                   # normalize vector                 try:                     s = 1.0/sqrt(sum(v**2 for v in x.values()))                   # this should never be zero?                 except ZeroDivisionError:                     s = 1.0             else:                 s = 1             for n in x:                 x[n] *= s             return x       raise nx.NetworkXError('Power iteration failed to converge in '                         '%d iterations.' % max_iter)

The above function is invoked using the networkx library and once the library is installed, you can eventually use it and the following code has to be written in python for the implementation of the katz centrality of a node.

## Python

 >>> import networkx as nx >>> import math >>> G = nx.path_graph(4) >>> phi = (1+math.sqrt(5))/2.0 # largest eigenvalue of adj matrix >>> centrality = nx.katz_centrality(G,1/phi-0.01) >>> for n,c in sorted(centrality.items()): ... print("%d %0.2f"%(n,c))

The output of the above code is:

0 0.37
1 0.60
2 0.60
3 0.37

The above result is a dictionary depicting the value of katz centrality of each node. The above is an extension of my article series on the centrality measures. Keep networking!!!

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