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Geography Notes For UPSC Exam 2023

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Geography Notes For UPSC: Geography is one of the crucial subjects you need to strengthen your basics in if you’re preparing for the UPSC exam. And for that, you need to be thorough with the Important topics of Geography for UPSC exams. It is covered in both the General Studies paper in the UPSC Prelims and the GS Paper 1 in the UPSC (Main) examination. So, you need to study the Important Topics of Geography for the UPSC Prelims and Mains exam.


UPSC Notes For UPSC 2023:

Most Important Geography Notes for UPSC 2023 (Prelims and Mains)

Geography establishes the relevance of human existence, the components that are favourable to life, and the aspects that are not conducive to human life in the UPSC framework of the syllabus. 

The UPSC geography syllabus is split into numerous micro topics, which are covered the below:

  1. Types of Rocks: Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
  2. Types And Effects Of Solar Storms
  3. Types of Clouds
  4. Types of Tides
  5. Importance of Tides
  6. Melting of Glaciers
  7. Polar Code
  8. Ground Level Ozone and Its Effect
  9. Various Agricultural Revolutions Of India
  10. Neighbouring Countries of India
  11. Ocean Currents: Various Types, Causes, Effects
  12. Ocean Currents – Factors and Impact on Climate
  13. Salinity of Ocean Water: Factors, Horizontals, and Vertical Distribution
  14. Causes, Effects, and Solutions to Ocean Dead Zones
  15. Coral Reefs: Types and Importance
  16. Effect of Global Warming on Coral Reefs
  17. Factors Affecting India’s Climate
  18. Carbon Market
  19. Ecologically Sensitive Zones
  20. Western And Eastern Coastal Plains Of India
  21. Distinguish Between Himalayan Rivers and Peninsular Rivers
  22. Neighboring Countries of India
  23. Land Degradation: Impact and Steps Taken by Government
  24. Land Reforms In India
  25. Types of Natural Vegetation in India
  26. Urban Solid Waste Management and its Challenges
  27. Government Steps to Control Floods and Droughts
  28. Cropping Patterns and Major Crops of India
  29. Horticulture In India: Its Growth And Future
  30. Wetlands and Wise Use Principle of the Ramsar Convention
  31. Measures to Improve Water Storage and Irrigation System
  32. Constitutional Provisions for the Protection of the Environment
  33. Social Forestry – Types and Benefits
  34. Indian Desert and its Features
  35. Role of Rivers in Indian Economy
  36. Role of National Horticulture Mission in Boosting the Production, Productivity, and Income of Horticulture Farms
  37. Compensatory Afforestation: Govt Initiative and Regulation
  38. UN Climate Change Conference (COP26)
  39. Importance of Water Conservation and Management
  40. Genetically Modified Crops
  41. Anti-Immunization Propaganda
  42. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
  43. Geoinformatics For Precision Agriculture
  44. Biological Diversity Act 2002
  45. Single-use Plastic – The Concerns Cause and Solutions
  46. Biorock Technology
  47. Radioactive Waste Management
  48. Tiger Census Report of India
  49. Issues Related to Urbanization in India
  50. Differentiate the Causes of Landslides in the Himalayan region and the Western Ghats
  51. Relation of Human Development with Environment and Climate Change
  52. Atal Mission For Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)
  53. Government Measures to Improve Agricultural Marketing in India
  54. Smart City Mission – Features, Strategy, and Challenges
  55. Transportation and Economic Development
  56. Composition and Structure of the Atmosphere
  57. Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS)
  58. Rural and Urban Settlements
  59. Scope and Future of Organic Farming With Sustainable Development
  60. Conventional Energy: Advantages and Disadvantages
  61. National Clean Air Programme(NCAP)
  62. Forest and Wildlife Resources
  63. Integrated Farming System for Sustainable Agriculture
  64. Technological and Institutional Reforms of Indian Agriculture
  65. Future of 5G technology in Agriculture
  66. Gwadar Port and its Geopolitical Impact on India
  67. National Action Plan For Climate Change (NAPCC)
  68. Cloudbursts in India 
  69. What is a Cloudburst? – Definition, Causes, Impacts, Examples
  70. Non-geographical Factors Needed for Industries
  71. Horn of Africa
  72. Fiber-Reinforced Plastic
  73. Urban Water Management
  74. Forest Restoration in India
  75. Green Protection to Aravalli Range
  76. Climate Emergency In The View of The Renewable Revolution
  77. The Objective of the Ministry of Jal Shakti
  78. Micro Irrigation System
  79. Constitutional Provisions for the Protection of the Environment
  80. World Climate Research Programme
  81. National Mission For Sustainable Agriculture
  82. Mining Sector In India And Its Challenges
  83. India State of Forest Report (ISFR) 2021
  84. North Sentinel Island and Sentinelese Tribe
  85. Rubber Board
  86. Ocean Pollution: Causes, Effects and Prevention
  87. The Future of Green Hydrogen and its Challenges
  88. List of Tallest Mountains in the United States
  89. Top 8 Longest Rivers in the World
  90. What is Ashwagandha? : Health Benefits, Plant & Uses
  91. What is Solar Flare?
  92. Top 10 Largest Cities in the World
  93. What is Hurricane?
  94. Difference Between Cyclones and Hurricanes
  95. What are El Nino and La Nina? and their Effects
  96. Top 10 Highest Mountains in the World
  97. What is Net Zero and Why is it Important?
  98. Bomb Cyclone: Characteristics, Effects and Hot Spots
  99. Ocean Floor: Features, Types, and Structure
  100. Autumnal Equinox: Definition, Dates & Facts
  101. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)
  102. Summer Solstice: When is it and What Causes it?
  103. What are Metamorphic Rocks?
  104. National Water Policy
  105. Volcanic Landforms: Extrusive and Intrusive
  106. National Committee on Trade Facilitation
  107. Digitization in Farm Productivity
  108. Triple Dip La Nina
  109. Intangible Cultural Heritage of India
  110. One Nation One Fertiliser
  111. Palm Oil in India
  112. Agri Exports in India
  113. Sugarcane and Sugar Industry in India
  114. World Food Program
  115. Cloudbursts Definition & Basic Mechanism

Syllabus of Geography for UPSC Civil Services Exam –

Geography Syllabus for UPSC- Prelims
  • Indian Geography
  • World Geography
  • Physical Geography
  • Human SalientGeography
Geography Syllabus for UPSC- Mains
  • Distribution of Key Natural Resources
  • Geophysical Phenomena
  • Salient Features of World’s Physical Geography like Geomorphology, Climatology, Oceanography, and Biography
UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus
  • Physical Geography
  • Human Geography
  • Geography of India

UPSC Mains Geography Syllabus:

Geography is covered in GS paper I of the UPSC mains exam. The GS Geography syllabus is as follows:

  1. Distribution of key natural resources across the world including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent; factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world including India.
  2. Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, tsunamis, Volcanic activity, cyclones, etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
  3. Salient features of the world’s physical geography (geomorphology, climatology, oceanography, biogeography, and environmental geography)-

UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus

The UPSC geography optional syllabus’s scoring ability and ration nature make it a popular choice among students from both Arts and Science courses. Let us first examine the structure of the UPSC geography optional.

Geography Syllabus for UPSC TopicsMarks
UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus Paper 1Physical Geography and Human Geography250
UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus Paper 2Geography of India250

If you have chosen Geography as an optional subject for the UPSC Mains, you should prepare properly by studying previous years’ exams and reading appropriate books on Geography for UPSC. Mapping questions should always be included in preparation because they are a continual aspect of the question paper format. IAS aspirants may ensure success by combining their preparation for Geography optional with preparation for General Studies in prelims and mains.

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Last Updated : 11 May, 2023
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