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Difference between Python and Java

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Programming languages play a fundamental role in computer science and are considered essential for the development of various applications. The two most popular programming languages in recent years have been Python and Java. Both are popular languages with numerous libraries, making it difficult to choose one. Python is gaining popularity because of its simplicity, but Java has been around for a long time and is therefore more popular than Python. A major difference between Java and Python is that Java is compiled and statically typed, while Python is interpreted and dynamically typed. As a result, learning Java is more challenging than learning Python.

Python

Python is a high-level, interpreted programming language. It was invented back in 1991, by Guido Van Rossum. Python is an object-oriented programming language that has large enormous library support making the implementation of various programs and algorithms easy. Its language constructs and object-oriented approach aim to help programmers to write clear, logical code for various projects. The biggest strength of Python is its huge collection of standard libraries which can be used for the following:

  • Machine Learning
  • GUI Applications (like Kivy, Tkinter, PyQt, etc. )
  • Web frameworks like Django (used by YouTube, Instagram, and Dropbox)
  • Image processing (like OpenCV, Pillow)
  • Web scraping (like Scrapy, BeautifulSoup, and Selenium)
  • Test frameworks
  • Multimedia
  • Scientific computing
  • Text processing and many more.

Example:

Python

# python program to print hello world
print "Hello World"

                    

Output
Hello World

Java

Java is a high-level, object-oriented programming language that was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems in 1995. Java has a syntax similar to C and C++ but with low-level difficulties. Java is platform-independent (WORA – Write Once Run Anywhere) meaning compiled java code can run on different platforms without recompilation. Java can be used to develop the following applications:

  • Desktop GUI Applications
  • Mobile Applications
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Web applications
  • Big Data technology
  • Gaming applications
  • Business applications

Java

// Java program to print hello world
import java.io.*;
 
class GFG {
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        System.out.println("Hello World");
    }
}

                    

Output
Hello World

Python vs Java

ParametersPythonJava

Code

Python has generally fewer lines of code.Java has long lines of code.

Framework

Compare to JAVA, Python has a lower number of Frameworks. Popular ones are Django and Flask.Java has a large number of Frameworks. Popular ones are Spring, Hibernate, etc.

Syntax

The syntax is easy to remember almost similar to human language.The syntax is complex as it throws errors if you miss semicolons or curly braces.

Key Features

Less line no of code, Rapid deployment, and dynamic typing.Self-memory management, Robust, Platform independent

Speed

Python is slower since it uses an interpreter and also determines the data type at run time.Java is faster in speed as compared to python.

Databases

Python’s database access layers are weaker than Java’s JDBC. This is why it is rarely used in enterprises.(JDBC)Java Database Connectivity is the most popular and widely used to connect with databases.

Machine Learning Libraries

Tensorflow, Pytorch.Weka, Mallet, Deeplearning4j, MOA

Practical Agility

Python has always had a presence in the agile space and has grown in popularity for many reasons, including the rise of the DevOps movement.Java enjoys more consistent refactoring support than Python thanks on one hand to its static type system which makes automated refactoring more predictable and reliable, and on the other to the prevalence of IDEs in Java development.

Multiple Inheritance

Python supports multiple Inheritance.Java partially supports Multiple Inheritance through interfaces.

Conclusion

We can conclude that both Java and Python languages have their own benefits. It really is up to you to opt for a particular language for your project. Where Python is simple and succinct, Java is quick and more portable. While Python codes are dynamically-coded, Java is statically-coded. Python’s future is very glaring from where we see and presume that its future is assertive. Python is far from perfect but if we say that python is a future and emerging language then we have to agree that Java is present, and its APIs are widely used.



Last Updated : 11 Mar, 2023
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