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Combinational circuits using Decoder

Last Updated : 15 May, 2023
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Prerequisite- Binary Decoder, Multiplexers 

A Decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from n      input lines to 2^n      unique output lines. Apart from the Input lines, a decoder may also have an Enable input line. 


Decoder as a De-Multiplexer –

A Decoder with Enable input can function as a demultiplexer. A demultiplexer is a circuit that receives information from a single line and directs it to one of 2^n      possible output lines. 

2^n      demultiplexer receives as input, n      selection lines and one Input line. These selection lines are used to select one output line out of 2^n      possible lines. To implement a 2^n      demultiplexer, we use a n:2^n      decoder with Enable input. The n      selection lines of the demultiplexer are the n      input lines that the decoder gets and the one input line of demultiplexer is the Enable input of the Decoder. 

Making 1:4 demultiplexer using 2:4 Decoder with Enable input. Let A, B be the selection lines and EN be the input line for the demultiplexer. 
The decoder shown below functions as a 2:4 demultiplexer when EN is taken as a data input line and A and B are taken as the selection inputs. The single input variable E has a path to all four outputs, but the input information is directed to only one of the output lines, as specified by the binary combination of the two selection lines A and B. This can be verified from the truth table of the circuit. 



Truth Table- 
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|c||c|c|c|c|} \hline E & A & B & D_0 & D_1 & D_2 & D_3\\ \hline \hline 0 & X & X & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0\\ \hline 1 & 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 & 0\\ \hline 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 0\\ \hline 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 & 0\\ \hline 1 & 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 1\\ \hline \end{tabular}


Combinational Logic Implementation using Decoder –

A decoder takes n      input lines and has 2^n      output lines. These output lines can provide the 2^n      minterms of n      input variables. 
Since any boolean function can be expressed as a sum of minterms, a decoder that can generate these minterms along with external OR gates that form their logical sums, can be used to form a circuit of any boolean function. 

For example, if we need to implement the logic of a full adder, we need a 3:8 decoder and OR gates. The input to the full adder, first and second bits and carry bit, are used as input to the decoder. Let x, y and z represent these three bits. Sum and Carry outputs of a full adder have the following truth tables- 
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|c||c|c|} \hline x & y & z & S & C\\ \hline \hline 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0\\ \hline 0 & 0 & 1 & 1 & 0\\ \hline 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0\\ \hline 0 & 1 & 1 & 0 & 1\\ \hline 1 & 0 & 0 & 1 & 0\\ \hline 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 1\\ \hline 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 & 1\\ \hline 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1\\ \hline \end{tabular}
Therefore we have- 
S = \sum (1, 2, 4, 7)
C = \sum (3, 5, 6, 7)
The following circuit diagram shows the implementation of Full adder using a 3:8 Decoder and OR gates. 


Advantages and Disadvantages of Combinational circuits using Decoder:

Advantages of Combinational circuits using Decoder:

1.Simplification: Combinational circuits utilizing Decoder can improve on the plan of complicated advanced circuits by diminishing the quantity of information sources required and the intricacy of the rationale capabilities.

2.Flexibility: Combinational circuits utilizing Decoder can be utilized in a large number of utilizations since they can change over paired codes into one-hot codes that can be utilized to control other circuit parts like multiplexers, demultiplexers, or memory gadgets.

3.Modularity: Combinational circuits utilizing Decoder can be effectively scaled and coordinated into bigger computerized frameworks since they are secluded and can be flowed to make more perplexing circuits.

4.Reliability: Combinational circuits utilizing Decoder are dependable and have a low likelihood of failing since they are made out of straightforward, surely knew parts.

 Disadvantages of Combinational circuits using Decoder:

1.Complexity: Combinational circuits utilizing Decoder can be complicated and require cautious plan to guarantee that the rationale capabilities are accurately executed and that there are no race conditions or errors.

2.Delay: Combinational circuits utilizing Decoder can bring delay into the circuit since the Decoder expects time to change over the information code into the one-hot result code.

3.Power utilization: Combinational circuits utilizing Decoder can consume more power than different sorts of circuits since they require various parts to carry out the rationale capabilities.

4.Limited adaptability: Combinational circuits utilizing Decoder are restricted to changing over parallel codes into one-hot codes, which can be a detriment in applications that require more mind boggling rationale works or backing for different kinds of codes.

Digital Design, 5th edition by Morris Mano and Michael Ciletti

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