# Arithmetic Operators in C

Arithmetic Operators are the type of operators in C that are used to perform mathematical operations in a C program. They can be used in programs to define expressions and mathematical formulas.

## What are C Arithmetic Operators?

The C arithmetic operators are the symbols that are used to perform mathematical operations on operands. There are a total of 9 arithmetic operators in C to provide the basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc.

## Types of Arithmetic Operators in C

The C Arithmetic Operators are of two types based on the number of operands they work. These are as follows:

1. Binary Arithmetic Operators
2. Unary Arithmetic Operators

## 1. Binary Arithmetic Operators in C

The C binary arithmetic operators operate or work on two operands. C provides 5 Binary Arithmetic Operators for performing arithmetic functions which are as follows:

## C

 // C program to demonstrate syntax of binary arithmetic // operators #include   int main() {     int a = 10, b = 4, res;       // printing a and b     printf("a is %d and b is %d\n", a, b);       res = a + b; // addition     printf("a + b is %d\n", res);       res = a - b; // subtraction     printf("a - b is %d\n", res);       res = a * b; // multiplication     printf("a * b is %d\n", res);       res = a / b; // division     printf("a / b is %d\n", res);       res = a % b; // modulus     printf("a %% b is %d\n", res);       return 0; }

Output

a is 10 and b is 4
a + b is 14
a - b is 6
a * b is 40
a / b is 2
a % b is 2

## 2. Unary Arithmetic Operators in C

The unary arithmetic operators operate or work with a single operand. In C, we have two unary arithmetic operators which are as follows:

### Increment Operator in C

The ‘++’ operator is used to increment the value of an integer. It can be used in two ways:

#### 1. Pre-Increment

When placed before the variable name (also called the pre-increment operator), its value is incremented instantly. Consider the example:

a = ++x;

This example can be expanded to

a = (x = x + 1);

#### 2. Post Increment

When it is placed after the variable name (also called post-increment operator), its value is preserved temporarily until the execution of this statement and it gets updated before the execution of the next statement. For example:

a = x++;

It can be expanded to

a = x;
x = x + 1;

### Decrement Operator in C

The ‘–‘ operator is used to decrement the value of an integer. Just like the increment operator, the decrement operator can also be used in two ways:

#### 1. Pre-Decrement

When placed before the variable name (also called the pre-decrement operator), its value is decremented instantly. For example, – – x.

#### 2. Post Decrement

When it is placed after the variable name (also called post-decrement operator), its value is preserved temporarily until the execution of this statement and it gets updated before the execution of the next statement. For example, x – –.

## C

 // C program to demonstrate working // of Unary arithmetic // operators #include   int main() {     int a = 10, b = 4, res;       printf("Post Increment and Decrement\n");     // post-increment example:     // res is assigned 10 only, a is not updated yet     res = a++;     printf("a is %d and result is %d\n", a,            res); // a becomes 11 now       // post-decrement example:     // res is assigned 11 only, a is not updated yet     res = a--;     printf("a is %d and result is %d\n", a,            res); // a becomes 10 now       printf("\nPre Increment and Decrement\n");     // pre-increment example:     // res is assigned 11 now since     // a is updated here itself     res = ++a;       // a and res have same values = 11     printf("a is %d and result is %d\n", a, res);       // pre-decrement example:     // res is assigned 10 only since a is updated here     // itself     res = --a;       // a and res have same values = 10     printf("a is %d and result is %d\n", a, res);       return 0; }

Output

Post Increment and Decrement
a is 11 and result is 10
a is 10 and result is 11

Pre Increment and Decrement
a is 11 and result is 11
a is 10 and result is 10

## Multiple Operators in a Single Expression

Till now, we have only seen expressions in which we have used a single operator in a single expression. What happens when we use multiple operators in a single expression? Let’s try to understand this with the help of the below example.

## C

 // C program to demonstrate the use #include   int main() {     int var;       // expression with multiple operators     var = 10 * 20 + 15 / 5;       printf("Result = %d", var);     return 0; }

Output

Result = 203

Explanation: The order of evaluation of the given expression is : ( ( 10 * 20 ) + (15 / 5 ) ).

This is due to the Operator Precedence and Associativity concept in C language where the operators with higher precedence will be evaluated first. The operator precedence system helps to provide unambiguously expressions.

## Examples of C Arithmetic Operators

### Example 1: C Program to find the area of a rectangle and triangle.

We will use the arithmetic operators for calculating the area and perimeter of the rectangle using the standard formula of each.

## C

 // C Program to calculate the area and perimeter of the // rectangle #include   int main() {     // declaring dimensions of the rectangle     int length = 10;     int breadth = 5;       // declaring variables to store the results     int area, perimeter;       // calculating area     area = length * breadth;       // calculating perimeter     perimeter = 2 * (length + breadth);       // printing results     printf("Area = %d\nPerimeter = %d", area, perimeter);       return 0; }

Output

Area = 50
Perimeter = 30

## Conclusion

In this article, we discussed the arithmetic operators in C and how they are useful in performing both basic and complex calculations in the C program. These are one of the core concepts that build the foundation of the C language.

## FAQs on C Arithmetic Operators

### 1. List all the arithmetic operators in C.

Below is the list of all the arithmetic operators in C language:

• ( + ) Addition Operator
• ( – ) Subtraction Operator
• ( * ) Multiplication Operator
• ( / ) Division Operator
• ( % ) Modulo Operator
• ( ++ ) Increment Operator
• ( — ) Decrement Operator
• ( + ) Unary Plus Operator
• ( – ) Unary Minus Operator

### 2. What is the difference between the unary minus and subtraction operators?

Although the unary minus and subtraction operator looks the same, their function is different from each other in the following ways:

• As the name suggests, the unary operator works on a single operator while the subtraction operator is a binary operator that works on two operands.
• The unary minus returns the negative of the value of its operand while the subtraction operator returns the difference between its two operands.

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