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What type of farming is called ‘Plantation farming’?

Last Updated : 17 Jul, 2023
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Ranches are a sort of business cultivation where a solitary harvest of tea, espresso, sugarcane, cashew, elastic, banana, or cotton is developed. A lot of work and capital are required. The produce might be handled on the actual homestead or in neighboring production lines. The improvement of a vehicle network is hence fundamental for such cultivation. Elastic in Malaysia, espresso in Brazil, tea in India, and Sri Lanka are a few models. Manor crops are those yields that are developed on ranches covering huge domains. Not at all like, different harvests, they are not yearly yields and require 3-5 years to prove to be fruitful after they are planted. In any case, when they begin proving to be fruitful, they keep on doing as such for 35-40 years.

They require weighty starting capital speculation and an undeniable level of innovation for their development and handling. They cover the little regions in India yet are of high financial worth. Tea, espresso, and elastic are the key ranch crops however flavors are additionally remembered for this class. Estate cultivating is a product situated specific cultivating strategy where accentuation is given to raise a solitary yield — exceptionally implied for the commodity to the abroad nations. It is a tremendous venture with a sound foundation where benefit expansion is the sole goal. It in­volves the development of harvest as well as handling, bundling, shipping, and sending out of the item. In this manner, it is the change in agribusiness, industry, and exchange.

Plantation Agriculture

Plantation Agriculture

Characteristics of Plantation Agriculture

Important characteristics of Plantation agriculture include:

  • Primary crops: Field farming focuses on the cultivation of a single crop or a few crops suited to a particular regional agro-climatic environment.
  • Large landowners: Farms often accompany large tracts of land, allowing for economic growth and efficiency.
  • Commercial concept: The main objective of plantation agriculture is commercial production for domestic and international markets.
  • Advanced Technology and Comparative Investment: Farms use modern agricultural techniques, machinery, irrigation systems, and chemical fertilizers to increase productivity and quality
  • Labor efficiency: Although the machinery is available in some segments, plantation agriculture often relies on significant labor for planting, maintenance, and harvesting
  • Infrastructure: Farms require infrastructure such as production facilities, warehouses, transportation systems, and sometimes housing for employees.
  • Monoculture and Intensive Management: Farms focus on intensive management practices, through careful pest management, irrigation, and nutrient management to ensure the growth of selected crops successfully.
  • Market integration: Farms are often integrated into global or national supply chains, where products are sold to manufacturers, wholesalers, or exporters.
  • Exports: Many agricultural crops are grown for export, helping the country earn foreign exchange.

Area of Plantation Agriculture

Estate cultivating is bound to tropical regions, i.e., the two sides of the equator. The inception of estate cultivation is firmly connected with the course of colonization. It has been created in a dispersed manner from the start in tropical regions.

A portion of the significant estate cultivations is espresso manors in Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia; sugar ranch in Cuba, Brazil, Peru, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines; tea estates in India, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia; cocoa cultivation in West Indies, Ecuador, Brazil; banana estate in Caribbean swamps, i.e., Mexico, Jamaica, Columbia, Brazil, Panama, Costa Rica; and rub­ber ranch in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Myanmar (Burma) and India and so on.

Verifiable Development of Plantation Agriculture

Manor horticulture is the result of imperialism. The target of the cultivation is not the slightest bit connected with the neighborhood economy. The commercial, supreme capital was contributed to cooking inter­national requests of a specific harvest. The traditional model is a tea manor in India and Sri Lanka by English growers; a Rubber ranch in Malaysia and Indonesia by English and Dutch growers, and so on.

Targets of Plantation Agriculture

Manor horticulture is the sign of monetary free enterprise which is the result of colonialism. It had been created in the settlements by the unfamiliar brokers to procure the greatest benefit by controlling the syndication exchange of a specific horticultural thing in the worldwide mar­ket. Manor agribusiness is, for all intents and purposes, not connected with the nearby economy, rather, it is completely connected with the complex worldwide modern economy.

Trademark Features of Plantation Agriculture

Features of plantation agriculture includes:

  • Highly complex, logical techniques are utilized broadly for enormous-scope creation.
  • The specialization of single harvest or mono-trimming is polished, e.g., tea in India, elastic in Malaysia, and so on.
  • Entire specialized skills, apparatus, and infrastructural materials are gathered from unfamiliar nations, especially from the nations of the business visionaries — like Eu­rope or N. America.
  • Plantation farming is a work-escalated movement. It requires decent barely any unskilled workers. A huge number of modest works is utilized — either from in the reverse region of the nation or even from far-off nations, e.g., Indian works in Mau­ritius’ sugarcane estates.
  • Apart from the simple unskilled workers, any remaining high-grade authorities are for the most part utilized from outside.
  • Nearly the whole result of manor cultivating is by and large traded to the inter­national market. For simple product offices, manor’ cultivating requires communi­cation organization, bundling and handling offices, and proximity of port(s).
  • Plantation cultivation is one of the most capital-escalated agrarian frameworks on the planet. Upkeep of foundation cost, above consumption, hardware buy, transport of the item and commodity — all require enormous use. A large portion of the capital comes from abroad nations.
  • Plantation farming is exclusively connected with the economy of the under-deve­loped nations. Not very many created nations support the advancement of plan­tation cultivation.
  • Products of manor cultivating are typically traded by non-industrial nations while it is imported and utilized by created nations — for either their own utilization or as an essential unrefined substance for different ventures.
  • Plantation agribusiness cultivation is for the most part evolved in distant regions, where farm­ing units are broad and enormous, nearby populace thickness is low, the cost of the land is modest, and other monetary exercises are irrelevant.
  • Plantation agribusiness frequently energizes relocation from other countries. In the provincial time frame, a large number of individuals moved to start with one spot and then onto the next for simple accessibility of work. Along these lines, social trade happens.
  • The initial return of manor cultivating is low as it takes a long incubation period to ma­turity. Notwithstanding high introductory venture, repeating speculations step by step decline.
  • Plantation farming isn’t restricted to agrarian exercises. It is dependably associ­ated with ventures including handling and bundling exercises e.g., elastic production line in elastic ranch.

Uses of  Plantation Farming

  • Commercial Production: The main objective of plantation agriculture is the large-scale commercial production of cash crops. Farms focus on high-value crops that are in high market demand, both domestically and internationally. These crops include tea, coffee, rubber, sugar, cotton, palm oil, cocoa, and various other products.
  • Economic Support: Farm agriculture plays an important role in economic growth and income generation. There are job opportunities, especially in rural areas where there are usually farms. Agricultural production and exports contribute to the national economy through foreign exchange earnings, tax revenues, and overall economic growth
  • Export Agriculture: Many farm crops are grown primarily for export. Tea, coffee, and cotton produced from these crops contribute to international trade and generate foreign exchange for the country. Plantation agriculture helps position countries as key players in global commodity markets.
  • Agro-Industrial Development: Plantations tend to produce inputs for various agricultural industries. For example, tea and coffee plantations provide raw materials for the tea and coffee industry. Sugar plantations are the main source of sugar, while oil plantations provide raw materials for palm oil.
  • Labor: Farm agriculture requires a large labor force for planting, maintenance, harvesting, and processing. The program creates employment opportunities, especially for rural communities, and helps reduce unemployment and poverty in these areas.

Issues in Plantation Farming

Here are some common issues in field farming:

  • Environmental Impact: Plantation agriculture often involves the conversion of natural ecosystems, such as forests or grasslands, into monoculture farms This can lead to deforestation, natural biodiversity loss, land degradation, and degradation of local ecosystems. The use of agricultural chemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers can cause pollution and adversely affect aquatic resources.
  • Land Abundance and Land Use: Plantation agriculture generally involves large landowners owned by corporations or the wealthy. This land surplus can lead to landlessness and displacement of local communities, thereby reducing access to resources and traditional livelihoods. Issues of tenure, land tenure, and conflict often arise on farms.
  • Employment issues and working conditions: Farms often rely on large numbers of workers including temporary workers or migrants. Working conditions on farms can be harsh, with long hours, low wages, lack of social security, and lack of access to basic services There have been reports of labor rights violations including child labor and forced labor including reported in some cases.
  • Socio-Economic Inequality: Farm agriculture can contribute to socio-economic inequality across regions and communities. Income differentials, limited opportunities for smallholder farmers, and dependence on farm labor can contribute to socioeconomic imbalances.
  • Reliance on global free markets: Farm crops are often produced for export markets, creating fluctuations in global commodity prices and market demand Reliance on limited production can drive farmers away into financial risk and instability, affecting their livelihoods and financial stability.

Related Links

  1. Plantation Farming in Tamil Nadu
  2. Monoculture Plantation
  3. Types of Farming in India
  4. Commerical Farming

FAQs on Plantation Agriculture

Q 1. What is estate crop give models?


The term ranch crop alludes to those harvests which are developed on a broad scale in coterminous regions, claimed and oversaw by an individual or an organization. The yields incorporate tea, espresso, elastic, cocoa, coconut, nut, oil palm, palmyra, and cashew.

Q 2. What is the significance of a ranch?


Tree ranch is significant in light of the fact that it gives new natural products, vegetables, nuts, and different food varieties for the endurance of life on Earth. They are the makers and the wellspring of food energy for all living things to get by, as they are at the lower part of the established pecking order.

Q 3. What are the upsides of estate cultivating?


  • It sets out more work and opens doors to the neighborhood individuals.
  • It is a kind of revenue for a country.
  • Crops are delivered for enormous scope.
  • Huge homes are overseen logically and proficiently.

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