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What is Commercial Farming?

Last Updated : 14 Jul, 2023
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Commercial agriculture, which is also known as agribusiness, is a method of cropping that is used to raise crops as well as livestock in order to sell the products on the market in order for making money. In commercial agriculture, a lot of capital is used for investment, and crops are grown on a large scale. A higher dose of crops is used along with modern inputs for higher productivity.

Agriculture or farming is the way of cultivating plants and livestock. It is the systematic way of crop production. Agriculture has always been the backbone of the Indian economy. The method of growing crops has evolved over the ages according to the technique and machinery available during that time. The Methods of agriculture may differ from one place to another based on various factors like rainfall, fertility of the land, soil type, etc. Over the years, various methods of cultivation are formed Primitive Subsistence Farming, Intensive Subsistence Farming, and Commercial Farming.

Commercial Farming

Commercial Farming

Commercial Farming

It is defined as a method of farming that is completely driven by profits. It is cultivating crops and livestock in large quantities with the main motive being selling them in the market to earn profits. This is a capital-intensive technique. The investment required for commercial farming is very high. Crops are grown in large quantities with the help of modern technologies, machinery, and various other techniques. This involves using fertilizers and pesticides for better growth of the crop. The main differentiator of this farming technique is the high dosage of fertilizers, pesticides, and use of High yielding varieties (HYV) seeds. The amount of commercial farming varies from place to place. 

Plantations are also a type of Commercial farming technique, single crops or two crops cover large areas of land. These were first introduced to India by the British government.

Rise of Commercial Forestry

For the past centuries, the people of India had been dependent on the forest for their requirement of woof for various uses. They used the wood from the forest without any restrictions. The British government was worried about the constant usage of the forest resources by the local people as they were concerned about the depletion of forest cover as they required wood from those trees to build their ships. To solve this issue they appointed Dietrich Brandis as the first Inspector General of India. Dietrich Brandis was a German expert in this field. He suggested that the local people be trained in the science of Conservation. He obtained legal help to do so. According to the new laws Felling of trees and grazing of cattle in the forest were prohibited or restricted as the forest was to be reserved for the production of timber for the government. Failing to follow the rules was a punishable offence. 

The Indian Forest Service was formed by Dietrich Brandis in 1864. The Indian forest act was passed by the British government in the year 1865. This law extended the British Colonial rights in India over forests. The Imperial forest research Institution was set up in Dehradun in the year 1906 to help develop new technologies and techniques to aid the farming techniques of the sub-continent. This institute taught the people the scientific method of forestry.

The Natural forest included a wide range of plants and trees but this pattern of trees was not favorable for the British government. They suggested a single variety of a tree be grown at a large scale at a place. These were known as plantations. The forest officials surveyed the forest and collected data regarding the trees present in the forest and then devise a plan for proper management of the forest. The forest act was amended twice over the period of British rule in 1878 and 1927 for the smooth functioning of the plantations

Types of Commercial Farming in India

The important commercial forms of farming in India include:

  1. Plantation Farming
  2. Commercial grain farming
  3. Livestock Farming
  4. Dairy Farming
  5. Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming
  6. Mediterranean Agriculture

Difference Between Subsistence Farming and Commerical Farming

Subsistence Farming Commercial Farming
Subsistence farming is mostly for personal use. Commercial farming is where farming is done for commercial purposes.
A lot of labor input is required because of which it is subsistence farming. In commercial farming, farmers invest capital in the case of farming.
There is less use of modern agricultural techniques as well as methods. There is a higher use of modern technologies as well as methods.
Fertilizers are used very less. In commercial farming, chemical fertilizers are used.

Related Links

  1. Farming System in India
  2. Types of agriculture in India
  3. Agriculture and Food Security

FAQs on Commercial Agriculture

Q 1. Define Commercial Farming.


It is defined as a method of farming which is completely driven by profits. It is cultivating crops and livestock in large quantities with the main motive being selling them in the market to earn profits. This is a capital-intensive technique. The investment required for commercial farming is very high.

Q 2. What does commercial mean in farming?


Commercial farming means a type of farming in which crops as well as livestock are raised to sell the products in the market for profit.

Q 3. What are the types of commercial farming?


The types of commercial farming include:

  1. Dairy farming
  2. Plantation farming
  3. Livestock ranching
  4. Mixed crop and livestock farming

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