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What is Hacking? Definition, Types, Identification, Safety

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An effort to attack a computer system or a private network inside a computer is known as hacking. Simply, it is unauthorized access to or control of computer network security systems with the intention of committing a crime. Hacking is the process of finding some security holes in a computer system or network in order to gain access to personal or corporate information. One example of computer hacking is the use of a password cracking technique to gain access to a computer system. The process of gaining illegal access to a computer system, or a group of computer systems, is known as hacking. This is accomplished by cracking the passwords and codes that grant access to systems. Cracking is the term used to describe the process of obtaining a password or code. The hacker is the individual who performs the hacking. Following are some of the things that can be hacked:

  • Single systems
  • Email account
  • A group of systems
  • LAN network
  • A website
  • Social media sites, etc.


Computer hackers are unauthorized users who gain access to computers in order to steal, alter, or delete data, generally by installing malicious software without your knowledge or agreement. They can get access to the information you don’t want them to have thanks to their cunning techniques and in-depth technological knowledge. Any device is connected to the Internet is at risk from computer hackers and online predators. To distribute hazardous malware to your computer and damage your network security, these online criminals generally use spam messages, phishing emails or instant messages, and websites.

Types of Hackers:

To elaborate on the aforementioned hacking aims, it is vital to understand the various sorts of hackers that exist in the cyber segment in order to distinguish between their responsibilities and objectives. The types of hackers are:

  1. Black Hat Hackers: These types of hackers, often known as crackers and always have a malicious motive and gain illegal access to computer networks and websites. Their goal is to make money by stealing secret organizational data, stealing funds from online bank accounts, violating privacy rights to benefit criminal organizations, and so on. In today’s world, the majority of hackers fall into this category and conduct their business in a murky manner. Black hat hackers are nefarious individuals who aim to utilize their technical expertise to exploit and harm others. They usually have the expertise and training to get into computer networks without the consent of the owners, attack security holes, and circumvent security procedures. With the malevolent goal of gaining unauthorized access to networks and systems, they attack to steal data, spread malware causing damage to systems.
  2. White Hat Hackers/Ethical Hackers: White hat hackers (sometimes referred to as ethical hackers) are the polar opposites of black hat hackers. They employ their technical expertise to defend the planet against malicious hackers. White hats are employed by businesses and government agencies as data security analysts, researchers, security specialists, etc. White hat hackers, with the permission of the system owner and with good motives, use the same hacking tactics that the black hackers use. They can work as contractors, freelancers, or in-house for the companies. They assist their customers in resolving security flaws before they are exploited by criminal hackers.
  3. Gray Hat Hackers: They fall somewhere between the above-mentioned types of hackers, in that they gain illegal access to a system but do so without any malicious intent. The goal is to expose the system’s weaknesses. Instead of exploiting vulnerabilities for unlawful gains, grey hat hackers may offer to repair vulnerabilities they’ve identified through their own unauthorized actions. Example: They may, for example, infiltrate your website, application without your permission to seek vulnerabilities. They rarely, if ever, try to harm others. Grey hats do this to obtain notoriety and reputation in the cyber security industry, which helps them further their careers as security experts in the long run. This move, on the other hand, harms the reputation of the organizations whose security flaws or exploits are made public.
  4. Red Hat Hackers: Also known as eagle-eyed hackers. Red hat hackers want to stop threat actors from launching unethical assaults. The red hat hackers aim the same as ethical hackers, but their methods differ, the red hat hackers may utilize illegal or extreme methods. Red hat hackers frequently use cyber attacks against threat actors’ systems.
  5. Blue Hat Hackers: Safety experts that work outside of the organization are known as blue hat hackers. Before releasing new software, companies frequently encourage them to test it and uncover security flaws. Companies occasionally hold meetings for blue hat hackers to help them uncover flaws in their critical internet systems. Money and fame aren’t necessarily important to some hackers. They hack to exact personal vengeance on a person, employer, organization, or government for a genuine — or perceived — deception. To hurt their adversaries’ data, websites, or devices, blue hat hackers utilize malicious software and various cyber threats on their rivals’ devices.
  6. Green Hat Hackers: Green hat hackers aren’t familiar with safety measures or the internal dynamics of the internet, but they’re quick learners who are driven (if not desperate) to advance in the hacking world. Although it is unlikely that they want to damage others, they may do so while “experimenting” with various viruses and attack strategies. As a result, green hat hackers can be dangerous since they are frequently unaware of the implications of their activities – or, even worse, how to correct them.

What can Hackers do?

While your computer is linked to the Internet, spyware installed by a hacker silently communicates your personal and financial information without your awareness or agreement. The hackers can:

  • Steal usernames and passwords.
  • Take out a cash advance
  • Steal your money and use your name to obtain credit cards and bank accounts.
  • Destroy Your credit.
  • Exploit your Social Security number
  • Make a new account requesting Additional credit cards or personal identification numbers (PINs)
  • Misuse personal information and share it with third parties ( illegal purposes).
  • Purchase something.

How to identify that your system is hacked?

If your system is hacked by some hacker then you will see the following warning signs:

  • Your computer system or mobile phone or tablet start acting strangely like the password does not work, the setting of your device is changes, the camera and microphone of your system is activating, etc.
  • The antivirus software of your system is deactivated without your information. It is the main element to protect your system if it is off without you knowledge then it is big sign that your system is under attack.
  • Generally hackers redirect your browser or your internet traffic to some malicious website. Then it is the sign that your system is under attack.
  • If someone stealing money from your account without your permission.
  • When some hacker gain the access of your account then the first step he/she do is to change that password of your account. So when the password doesn’t work then this means that someone change your account password.
  • Seeing some suspicious ads or popup frequently on your system is also the part of hacking.

How to Safeguard us from the Hackers?

Hacking is a chronic problem that jeopardizes a nation’s and its residents’ security. Individually, it can result in incalculable economic losses, even wiping out a person’s financial savings. At the organizational level, it has resulted in data theft, resulting in significant financial losses and long-term consequences. To stop this terrible threat, protections must be put in place at the correct moment and at all levels. So to protect ourselves from hackers always remember the following points:

  • Always keep your system updated because hackers always look for holes in security to attack. So, updating the operating system and software will prevent the user from getting hacked.
  • Always set unique and strong passwords for different accounts never use the same passwords for the same accounts because it is easy to hack.
  • While using websites always look for HTTPS encryption. It ensure that the connection is secure.
  • Use Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) as a type of point-to-point communication that allows business networks to connect to offsite and remote sites. VPN services, such as ExpressVPN, encrypt the sending and receiving IP addresses, preventing unauthorized access.
  • Only download software from reputable sources. Before downloading free software or file-sharing applications, give them a thorough examination.
  • Make use of a two-way firewall.
  • Stay away from dubious websites.
  • Increase the security settings of your browser.
  • Always install antivirus software

Last Updated : 03 Sep, 2021
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