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Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources

Last Updated : 16 Aug, 2023
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Our planet Earth is home to a large number of residing creatures. From miniature organic entities and microbes, and lichens to banyan trees, elephants, and blue whales, there is an immensely large number of living creatures found on the earth. Tragically, people today have changed nature and untamed life into an asset.

The majority of the woodland and untamed life assets are possessed by the Government of India and overseen through a few offices like the Forest Department. Woodlands are separated into three kinds: Reserved Forests, Protected Forests, and Unclassed Forests. More than half of the woodlands in India have been pronounced held as timberland. The provinces of Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Maharashtra have a huge level of their backwoods named held timberland.

Types and Distribution of Forest

Types and Distribution of Forest

Around 33% of the woods in India are named safeguarded backwoods. Most pieces of the woods in Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Orissa, and Rajasthan are named safeguarded backwoods. Held and safeguarded woodlands are together called super durable timberland homes. Madhya Pradesh has the biggest portion of long-lasting backwoods in India, with practically 75% of its woods named extremely durable woodlands.

Every one of the woods and badlands other than the saved and safeguarded backwoods are considered unclassed woodlands. A large portion of the woods in the northeastern provinces of India and Gujarat are unclassed woodlands. Strict confidence has prompted the protection of specific explicit sorts of trees in various pieces of India. Portions of backwoods or complete timberlands are safeguarded by networks since they are viewed as habitations of divine beings and goddesses. Such safeguarded backwood regions are called sacrosanct forests. A few creatures are additionally viewed as holy, and, thusly, not hurt. One more justification for local area cooperation in protection endeavors is the worry for their own endurance. Numerous ancestral networks are effectively helping government authorities in their protection endeavors. Neighborhood locals referred to the Wildlife Protection Act to battle against the continuous mining action inside the Sariska Tiger Reserve in Rajasthan.

Flora and Fauna in India

India is one of the world’s most extravagant nations with regard to its huge swath of natural variety. Various assortments of woods and untamed life assets are found in India. In view of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), we can arrange various classes of existing plants and creature species as follows:

Classification of Wildlife Species

Classification of Wildlife Species

  • Normal Species: Species whose populace levels are viewed as typical for their endurance, like dairy cattle, sal, pine, rodents, and so on.
  • Endangered Species: These species are at risk of eradication. For models, species are a dark buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion followed macaque, sangai (forehead anther deer in Manipur), and so forth.
  • Vulnerable Species: These are species whose populace has declined to levels that it is probably going to move into the imperiled classification sooner rather than later assuming it keeps on declining in a similar way. Eg: Blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin, and so forth.
  • Rare Species: Species with a little populace might move into the jeopardized or weak class in the event that the negative variables influence them to keep on working. Instances of such species are the Himalayan earthy colored bear, wild Asiatic bison, desert fox and hornbill, and so on.
  • Endemic Species: These are species that are just found in a few specific regions typically segregated by normal or topographical obstructions. Instances of such species are the Andaman blue-green, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, and Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Extinct Species: These species might be wiped out from a neighborhood, nation, landmass, or the whole earth. Eg: Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck.

Reasons for Depletion of Flora and Fauna

  • Inordinate utilization of normal assets for satisfying human necessities like wood, bark, leaves, elastic, meds, colors, food, fuel, grain, compost, and so forth.
  • The extension of the rail routes, horticulture, business, and logical ranger service and mining exercises.
  • Huge scope improvement of ventures and mining exercises.
  • Inconsistent access, unjust utilization of assets, and differential sharing of liability regarding ecological prosperity.

Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India

Protection saves the environmental variety and jellies the hereditary variety of plants and creatures.

  • The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was executed in 1972, for safeguarding territories and an all-India rundown of safeguarded species was distributed.
  • The focal government additionally declared a few activities for safeguarding explicit creatures. Under the Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986, a few hundred butterflies, moths, bugs, and one dragonfly have been added to the rundown of safeguarded species.
  • In 1991, interestingly plants were additionally added to the rundown, beginning with six species.

Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources

In our country, most of the backwoods and untamed life assets are either claimed or overseen by the public authority. This is finished by the Forest Department or other government offices. Woodlands are typically partitioned into the following classifications:

  • Reserved Forests: To the extent that the protection of timberland and natural life assets are concerned, these are accepted to be generally significant. Consequently, known as the saved woods. It covers half of the complete timberland land.
  • Protected Forests: Such timberlands land is safeguarded from any further exhaustion. Subsequently, these are known as the safeguarded woods. About – third of the absolute woodland region is safeguarded timberland.
  • Unclassed Forests: At long last, there were the unclassed backwoods. This incorporates different woodlands and badlands having a place with both government and private people and networks. Since they weren’t classed or arranged, they got the name unclassed backwoods.

Held and safeguarded backwoods are likewise alluded to as long-lasting timberlands, which are kept up to create lumber and other woodland produce, and for defensive reasons. 

Community and Conservation

Preservation of the timberland and untamed life assets is vital. The following are a couple of steps were taken by average citizens:

  1. In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, locals have battled against mining by referring to the Wildlife Protection Act.
  2. The occupants of five towns in the Alwar area of Rajasthan have pronounced 1,200 hectares of woodland as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’. Towns concocted their own arrangement of rules and guidelines which don’t permit hunting. They are likewise safeguarding natural life against any external infringements.
  3. The popular Chipko development in the Himalayas was one fruitful endeavor to oppose deforestation in a few regions. The development has likewise brought about local area afforestation.
  4. Ranchers and resident gatherings like the Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdanya have shown that satisfactory degrees of enhanced crop creation without the utilization of engineered synthetics are conceivable and monetarily suitable.
  5. India joint woodland the Executives (JFM) program outfits a genuine model for including nearby networks in the administration and reclamation of debased backwoods.

Factors Affecting the Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources

The distribution of forest and Wildlife resources is affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors. Abiotic factors include things like climate, soil, and elevation. Biotic factors include the presence of other organisms that compete for resources or prey on other organisms. For example, forests are more likely to occur in areas with high rainfall. This is because trees need a lot of water to survive. Soils also play a role in the distribution of forests. Trees need nutrient-rich soils to grow, so they are more likely to occur in areas with fertile soils. Elevation also plays a role in the distribution of forests; they are more likely to occur at lower elevations where it is warmer. The presence of other organisms can also affect the distribution of forest and Wildlife resources. For example, predators can limit the distribution of their prey. And competition from other organisms can limit the distribution of certain species.

Conservation of Forest and Wildlife Resources

Forests and wildlife are under threat from a range of factors including habitat loss, climate change, and poaching. Conservation efforts are therefore critical to the protection of these important resources. There are a number of forest and Wildlife Conservation Areas in India that aim to protect and conserve these valuable resources. The Indian government has also enacted a number of laws and policies to support conservation efforts. These include the Forest Conservation Act 1980, the Wildlife Protection Act 1972, and the National Wildlife Action Plan 2002. Conservation efforts are also being undertaken by a number of NGOs and other organizations. For example, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is working to combat deforestation and promote sustainable forestry practices in India. The Wildlife Trust of India (WTI) is also working to save endangered species and their habitats. It is clear that there is a need for urgent action to protect forest and Wildlife resources in India. With continued effort from all sectors, it is possible to ensure the long-term conservation of these vital resources.

Sustainable Management of Forest and Wildlife Resources

Forests and wildlife are an important part of the Earth&#x2019s natural resources. They provide us with food, water, fuel, lumber, and many other things that we need to live. They also play a vital role in the health of our planet by providing homes for plants and animals, regulating the climate, and purifying the air and water. Despite their importance, forests and wildlife are under threat from human activities. Deforestation, overgrazing, habitat loss, pollution, and climate change are all causing serious problems for forests and wildlife around the world. Fortunately, there are things that we can do to help protect forests and wildlife. Sustainable management of forest and Wildlife Resources is one way to ensure that these vital resources will be available for future generations.

Sustainable management of forest and Wildlife Resources means using these resources in a way that doesn&#x2019t damage or degrade them. It also means conserving them so that they can continue to provide benefits for people and ecosystems in the future. There are many ways to achieve sustainable management of forest and Wildlife Resources. Some of these include: reducing deforestation; protecting critical habitats; managing grazing lands sustainably; reducing pollution; and mitigating climate change. By taking action to protect forests and wildlife, we can help ensure that these vital resources will be available for generations to come.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q 1: What is biodiversity? 


Biodiversity is comprised of different sorts of living things found on the planet. It is a proportion of variety at the environment, species and hereditary level. Biodiversity is plentiful in Tropical regions. Tropical regions cover 10% of the earth surface, yet they have 90% of the world species.

Commitment of biodiversity in living souls

  •  Agribusiness – Variety of Plant species address our issues for food.
  • Their commitment to business and industry
  • Relaxed exercises
  • Biological administrations

Q 2: Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India.


Chipko Movement: The popular Chipko development in the Himalayas has effectively opposed deforestation in a few regions as well as displayed that local area afforestation with native species can find actual success. Certain social orders adore a specific tree which they have saved from days of yore.  

In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, residents have battled against mining by referring to the Wildlife Protection Act. In numerous areas, residents themselves are safeguarding territories and are expressly dismissing government contribution. The occupants of five towns in the Alwar area of Rajasthan have pronounced 1,200 hectares of backwoods as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’, proclaiming their own arrangement of rules and guidelines which don’t permit hunting and are safeguarding the natural life against any external infringements.

Q 3: Compose a note on great practices towards moderating woodland and natural life.


In India, joint woods the executives (JFM) program outfits a genuine instance of including neighborhood networks in the administration and reclamation of corrupted woodlands. The program has been in conventional presence starting around 1988 when the province of Odisha passed the principal goal for joint backwoods the executives. JFM relies upon the arrangement of neighborhood (town) establishments that attempt assurance exercises for the most part on debased backwoods land oversaw by the woods office. Consequently, the individuals from these networks are qualified for go-between benefits like non-wood backwoods delivers and offer in the lumber reaped by ‘fruitful insurance’. The unmistakable illustration from the elements of both ecological annihilation and reproduction in India is that neighborhood networks wherever must be engaged with some sort of regular asset the board. Yet, there is as yet quite far to go before neighborhood networks are at the middle stage in independent direction. Acknowledge just those financial or formative exercises, that are individuals driven, climate cordial and monetarily fulfilling.

Q 4: How have human exercises impacted the exhaustion of greenery? Explain


Human exercise have impacted the exhaustion of greenery in following ways:

1. Different stream valley projects have impacted the greenery
2. Numerous illicit Mining projects have drained the greenery
3. Such a large number of advancement projects for relaxation exercises in the woodlands have contrarily impacted.
4. Such a large number of human exercises in the timberland region because of rising populace and absence of room has made human-creature struggle

Q 5: What elements are liable for the appropriation of plants and creatures in India?


The appropriation of plants and creatures not set in stone by the environment of that area. The other deciding variables of this dissemination are soil, alleviation and seepage and so forth.

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