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Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India

Last Updated : 16 Aug, 2023
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The term “wildlife” refers to non-domesticated animal species. As a result, any living organism found in the forest is associated with wildlife. It can be found in almost all ecosystems, including rainforests, boreal forests, plains, grasslands, and deserts. Wildlife contributes significantly to the stability of our environment by being directly or indirectly involved in natural processes. Each living organism is equally important in the food chain; they may be a producer, a consumer, or a decomposer; all are interconnected and rely on one another for survival.

Forests provide a variety of resources, including food, medicine, textiles, and raw materials. Aside from regulating global temperatures, forests also help to keep soil from eroding and shelter more than 80% of animal species and terrestrial biodiversity. They also help to improve a country’s socioeconomic conditions.

Conservation of Forest and Wildlife

Forest Conservation 

  • Forest conservation is the practice of planting more trees and maintaining forested areas for future generations’ sustainability.
  • Forests are an important natural resource that benefits humans in a variety of ways. 
  • Deforestation is the permanent destruction or loss of forests to expand lands for agriculture, livestock, and other uses. Shifting cultivation refers to the process of destroying forests to develop agricultural land.
  • Forest fires are another source of deforestation. Forest fire prevention measures must be implemented.
  • Lightning can cause old wood to catch fire, so it must be removed. Forest fire suppression planning and execution
  • Forest product exploitation must be halted. Strict rules and regulations must be imposed on people who exploit forest wealth.
  • Forest management departments should ensure that forests grow sustainably and that hunting and poaching are prohibited.
  • Forests can be protected by preserving biosphere reserves, wildlife refuges, national parks, zoological parks, and botanical gardens.

Steps to Conserve Forests

  • Forest conservation requires the prevention of the exploitation of forestry and forest products.
  • Slash and burn agriculture, for example, is particularly harmful to the environment and forests. 
  • Many tribal communities live in forests. These communities have a very organic relationship with the forests, and the majority of their livelihoods rely on them as well. As a result, it is critical to enlist their help in forest conservation.
  • It is important to avoid cutting young trees as far as possible. Commercial deforestation should be monitored as well. Forest management practices such as selective cutting and planned harvesting can be used to maximize the benefits of a forest.
  • Spraying chemicals, antibiotics, or the development of pest-resistant tree strains should be used to protect existing forests from disease.

National Parks

  • National parks are large and diverse reserves that help to protect various ecosystems. These can protect flora, fauna, and a variety of other ecosystem components.
  • Snow leopards, clouded leopards, marbled cats, pandas, black bears, blue sheep, wild asses, toucans, musk deer, and other endangered species are being protected.
  • Some of India’s national parks include Corbett National Park, Kanha National Park, Sanjay National Park, Periyar National Park, and Bannerghatta National Park.

Biosphere Reserve

  • They are vast swaths of land designated for biodiversity conservation and protecting large areas of natural habitat.
  • Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve are two examples.
  • Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve, for example, includes the Satpura National Park as well as the Bori and Pachmarhi Wildlife Sanctuaries.

Wildlife Sanctuaries

  • Wildlife sanctuaries are areas that aid in the preservation of wild plant and animal species.
  • Wildlife sanctuaries are areas where it is illegal to kill animals or cut down trees.
  • Here, endangered wild animals such as the blackbuck, white-eyed buck, elephant, python, rhinoceros, marsh crocodile, and golden cat are preserved.

Wildlife Conservation 

  • Wildlife conservation refers to the protection of various wildlife in the forest. Wildlife refers to animals and birds that live in the woods and have not been domesticated by humans.
  • Their natural habitat is wood, and the destruction of forests causes these animals to become homeless. Because these animals do not have a specific place to live, they can later come to the villages and feed on the crops.
  • The world’s biodiversity is currently threatened due to species extinction. Thirty-five hotspots around the world support 43% of endemic birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians.
  • The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has compiled a list of species and classified them as extinct, critically endangered, less endangered, vulnerable, near threatened, or least concerned. 
  • According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the population of birds, animals, and marine and freshwater creatures has decreased by nearly one-third.
  • There was a time when human needs were minimal and wildlife had little interference. There is no denying that wildlife is rapidly disappearing from the planet as a result of urbanization, pollution, and human intervention.

Steps to Conserve Wildlife 

First and foremost, humans require control over their needs. We must prevent people from felling trees unnecessarily. If trees are felled, they should be replanted.

Wildlife Sanctuaries

Wildlife sanctuaries should be established to protect ecologically significant areas. The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 establishes various provisions for wildlife habitat protection, including establishing national parks and sanctuaries. These parks and sanctuaries ensure the preservation of endangered species.


Pollution is one of the major factors contributing to the extinction of animal species. Pollution of the environment, such as air pollution, water pollution, and soil pollution, hurts the entire ecosystem. Controlling pollution in the environment has become critical.


Migration refers to the seasonal movement of birds from harsh cold climates to warm regions (where food is abundant and breeding is easier). Every year, birds take the same flight path.

Every year, Siberian cranes, flamingos, and pelicans, for example, visit India. To protect water bodies and areas where these birds migrate, the government has established bird sanctuaries. Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary, Pulicat Lake Reserve, and so on.


Zoos also provide animal protection, but the animals are usually brought from other countries or areas. They are given artificial enclosures and food. Zoos have begun to implement breeding programs to increase the population of wildlife.

The Red Data Book

The Red Data Book is a source that contains vital information about endangered species. It records information about these animals. Plants and animals have different Red Data Books.

Steps to Conserve Wildlife in India

The government has created several strides to safeguard Indian life there,

  • Different ventures with relevance to the preservation of imperiled species, for example, tiger and one-horned mammals are started by the general public authority.
  • The Indian Life Act was gone by the general public authority in 1972 for the reassurance of plants and creature species.
  • The focal and state legislatures have ordered out varied wildlife safe havens and public parks to safeguard backwoods and natural life.
  • The Act prohibited the searching and cookery of creatures and gave legitimate assurance to their environments.
  • The public authority, through the presentation of a joint administration program, has concerned neighborhood networks within the administration of timberlands.

Acts For Conservation Of Life And Forest 

This Act accommodates the insurance of the country’s wild creatures, birds, and plant species, to ensure natural and environmental security. Additionally, to alternative things, the Act sets down limitations on looking at various creature species. The Act was last altered within the year 2006. associate change bill was given within the Rajya Sabha in 2013 and alluded to a committee, however, it had been removed in 2015. Some Government bodies that are set out underneath this Act are;

  1. The Public Board of Life fills in because the pinnacle body for checking on unbroken life-connected matters.
  2. The Committee of the National Board of Life serves diode by the Minister of Setting, Forest, and global climate change, and supports or limits come within safeguarded unbroken life regions.
  3. The State Board of Life is the celestial point body at the state level.

The primary regulation was gone along land Indian Government in 1887 referred to as the Wild Birds Protection Act, 1887. The law tried to deny the happiness and supply of indicated wild birds that were either killed or caught throughout a reproducing meeting. Article 48A of the Constitution of Asian nations guides the State to secure and work on the climate and defend unbroken life and woods. this text was to the Constitution by the forty-second change in 1976. Article 51A forces specific crucial obligations for people of Asian nations. One of them is to secure and develop the common surroundings together with woodlands, lakes, waterways, and natural life and to possess sympathy for living animals.

The Life Protection Act likewise accommodates the constitution of bodies to be established underneath this act. Prohibition of looking: It forests all hunting of any creature indicated that’s in Schedules I, II, III, and IV of the demonstration. there’s any way one exemption, for instance, any wild creature. Restriction of Cutting/Uprooting Sure Plants This does not enable the evacuating, harming, having, or mercantilism of any planned plant from any woods land or any safeguarded region.

The Forest (Conservation) Act of 1980 (FCA, 1980) may be a demonstration by the Parliament of Asian Nations that guarantees the protection of land and its assets. It was sanctioned by the Parliament of { India | Republic of Asian nation | Bharat | Asian country| Asian nation} to manage the continued deforestation of the backwoods of India. It came into force on Gregorian calendar month twenty-five, 1980 containing 5 areas.

In the inside of data reports referencing future alterations to the FCA 1980 by the setting Ministry, the demonstration and its arrangements become vital from the continued problems purpose of reading. The demonstration gave the position to land to confine ancestral exercises by exacting expenses on lumber and earth administrations. All in all, it directed the cutting of lumber and stream of unrefined elements rather than safeguarding wood.

One of the principal lawful drafts to safeguard land parcels was the Indian Forest Act, of 1865 supplanted by a 1927 rendition of an identical demonstration. even so, it had been a lot of equipped towards safeguarding the business interests of the land Empire in the Asian nation.

Reasons Why Wildlife is Important

  • Although plants are the primary source of medications, some animals are also required in the manufacturing process. For example, cobra venom is an important ingredient in leprosy medications, and lobsters can be used as antifungals.
  • Wildlife microorganisms participate in nitrogen fixation, increasing soil fertility.
  • Conservation of wildlife entails the preservation of heritage and traditional culture. Some areas are known for their flora and fauna native practices and ways of life, which means that if the environment is not conserved, they will lose their land and native heritage.
  • Conserving fauna and flora promotes global ecological stability and balance. For example, plants help maintain a healthy ecosystem by balancing carbon dioxide and oxygen levels in the environment.
  • Future generations will not be able to see some of the wild animals that exist today unless conservation measures are implemented.
  • Many wild animals are becoming extinct as a result of human activity, including the Amur leopard, Cross River gorilla, Black and Javan rhinoceros, Hawksbill turtle, South China tiger, pangolin, and Sumatran elephant.

Reasons Why Forests Are Important 

  • Millions of people are employed by forest products such as medicinal plants, fabrics, and raw materials. Without the woods, all of these people will lose their jobs and be unable to earn a living.
  • A diverse range of animals finds refuge in forests. If the trees are destroyed, these animals will perish because they will be deprived of their natural habitat. Many endangered plant and animal species become extinct as a result of this destruction.
  • The primary reason for preserving forests and wildlife is to ensure that we have enough oxygen to breathe. Without trees, oxygen cannot be produced, and carbon dioxide may accumulate in the environment.
  • Forests can absorb the majority of the water during a flood, preventing soil erosion and saving us from natural disasters.
  • Converting forest zones into tourist destinations and viewing wildlife firsthand can generate significant economic benefits.
  • Forests contribute to the carbon cycle by absorbing CO2 from animals.

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FAQs on Conservation of Forest and Wildlife

Q1: How can we conserve our forests and wildlife?


We can conserve forests and wildlife in the following ways:

  1. By the introduction of afforestation programs.
  2. By controlling forest fires.
  3. By proper utilization of forest resources.

Q2: Why is the conservation of forests and wildlife important?


The conservation of forests and wildlife is very important because it is essential and important to maintain the ecological balance and if that is disturbed, it will lead to long-term degradation of the environment as well as the ecology.

Q3: What are the conservation of forests and wildlife in India?


The Conservation of forest and wildlife in India act provided for several provisions, with the main agenda to protect the remaining of the population of the endangered species like banning of hunting, legal protection and so forth.

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