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Strassen’s Matrix Multiplication Algorithm | Implementation
  • Difficulty Level : Hard
  • Last Updated : 07 Jun, 2018

The Strassen’s method of matrix multiplication is a typical divide and conquer algorithm. We have discussed Strassen’s Algorithm here. However, let’s get again on what’s behind the divide and conquer approach and implement it.

Prerequisite: It is required to see this post before further understanding.

Implementation

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// CPP program to implement Strassen’s Matrix 
// Multiplication Algorithm 
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
typedef long long lld;
  
/* Strassen's Algorithm for matrix multiplication
   Complexity:    O(n^2.808) */
  
inline lld** MatrixMultiply(lld** a, lld** b, int n,
                                      int l, int m)
{
    lld** c = new lld*[n];
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
        c[i] = new lld[m];
  
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        for (int j = 0; j < m; j++) {
            c[i][j] = 0;
            for (int k = 0; k < l; k++) {
                c[i][j] += a[i][k] * b[k][j];
            }
        }
    }
    return c;
}
  
inline lld** Strassen(lld** a, lld** b, int n, 
                                int l, int m)
{
    if (n == 1 || l == 1 || m == 1) 
        return MatrixMultiply(a, b, n, l, m);
  
    lld** c = new lld*[n];
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
        c[i] = new lld[m];
  
    int adjN = (n >> 1) + (n & 1);
    int adjL = (l >> 1) + (l & 1);
    int adjM = (m >> 1) + (m & 1);
  
    lld**** As = new lld***[2];
    for (int x = 0; x < 2; x++) {
        As[x] = new lld**[2];
        for (int y = 0; y < 2; y++) {
            As[x][y] = new lld*[adjN];
            for (int i = 0; i < adjN; i++) {
                As[x][y][i] = new lld[adjL];
                for (int j = 0; j < adjL; j++) {
                    int I = i + (x & 1) * adjN;
                    int J = j + (y & 1) * adjL;
                    As[x][y][i][j] = (I < n && J < l) ? a[I][J] : 0;
                }
            }
        }
    }
  
    lld**** Bs = new lld***[2];
    for (int x = 0; x < 2; x++) {
        Bs[x] = new lld**[2];
        for (int y = 0; y < 2; y++) {
            Bs[x][y] = new lld*[adjN];
            for (int i = 0; i < adjL; i++) {
                Bs[x][y][i] = new lld[adjM];
                for (int j = 0; j < adjM; j++) {
                    int I = i + (x & 1) * adjL;
                    int J = j + (y & 1) * adjM;
                    Bs[x][y][i][j] = (I < l && J < m) ? b[I][J] : 0;
                }
            }
        }
    }
  
    lld*** s = new lld**[10];
    for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
        switch (i) {
        case 0:
            s[i] = new lld*[adjL];
            for (int j = 0; j < adjL; j++) {
                s[i][j] = new lld[adjM];
                for (int k = 0; k < adjM; k++) {
                    s[i][j][k] = Bs[0][1][j][k] - Bs[1][1][j][k];
                }
            }
            break;
        case 1:
            s[i] = new lld*[adjN];
            for (int j = 0; j < adjN; j++) {
                s[i][j] = new lld[adjL];
                for (int k = 0; k < adjL; k++) {
                    s[i][j][k] = As[0][0][j][k] + As[0][1][j][k];
                }
            }
            break;
        case 2:
            s[i] = new lld*[adjN];
            for (int j = 0; j < adjN; j++) {
                s[i][j] = new lld[adjL];
                for (int k = 0; k < adjL; k++) {
                    s[i][j][k] = As[1][0][j][k] + As[1][1][j][k];
                }
            }
            break;
        case 3:
            s[i] = new lld*[adjL];
            for (int j = 0; j < adjL; j++) {
                s[i][j] = new lld[adjM];
                for (int k = 0; k < adjM; k++) {
                    s[i][j][k] = Bs[1][0][j][k] - Bs[0][0][j][k];
                }
            }
            break;
        case 4:
            s[i] = new lld*[adjN];
            for (int j = 0; j < adjN; j++) {
                s[i][j] = new lld[adjL];
                for (int k = 0; k < adjL; k++) {
                    s[i][j][k] = As[0][0][j][k] + As[1][1][j][k];
                }
            }
            break;
        case 5:
            s[i] = new lld*[adjL];
            for (int j = 0; j < adjL; j++) {
                s[i][j] = new lld[adjM];
                for (int k = 0; k < adjM; k++) {
                    s[i][j][k] = Bs[0][0][j][k] + Bs[1][1][j][k];
                }
            }
            break;
        case 6:
            s[i] = new lld*[adjN];
            for (int j = 0; j < adjN; j++) {
                s[i][j] = new lld[adjL];
                for (int k = 0; k < adjL; k++) {
                    s[i][j][k] = As[0][1][j][k] - As[1][1][j][k];
                }
            }
            break;
        case 7:
            s[i] = new lld*[adjL];
            for (int j = 0; j < adjL; j++) {
                s[i][j] = new lld[adjM];
                for (int k = 0; k < adjM; k++) {
                    s[i][j][k] = Bs[1][0][j][k] + Bs[1][1][j][k];
                }
            }
            break;
        case 8:
            s[i] = new lld*[adjN];
            for (int j = 0; j < adjN; j++) {
                s[i][j] = new lld[adjL];
                for (int k = 0; k < adjL; k++) {
                    s[i][j][k] = As[0][0][j][k] - As[1][0][j][k];
                }
            }
            break;
        case 9:
            s[i] = new lld*[adjL];
            for (int j = 0; j < adjL; j++) {
                s[i][j] = new lld[adjM];
                for (int k = 0; k < adjM; k++) {
                    s[i][j][k] = Bs[0][0][j][k] + Bs[0][1][j][k];
                }
            }
            break;
        }
    }
  
    lld*** p = new lld**[7];
    p[0] = Strassen(As[0][0], s[0], adjN, adjL, adjM);
    p[1] = Strassen(s[1], Bs[1][1], adjN, adjL, adjM);
    p[2] = Strassen(s[2], Bs[0][0], adjN, adjL, adjM);
    p[3] = Strassen(As[1][1], s[3], adjN, adjL, adjM);
    p[4] = Strassen(s[4], s[5], adjN, adjL, adjM);
    p[5] = Strassen(s[6], s[7], adjN, adjL, adjM);
    p[6] = Strassen(s[8], s[9], adjN, adjL, adjM);
  
    for (int i = 0; i < adjN; i++) {
        for (int j = 0; j < adjM; j++) {
            c[i][j] = p[4][i][j] + p[3][i][j] - p[1][i][j] + p[5][i][j];
            if (j + adjM < m)
                c[i][j + adjM] = p[0][i][j] + p[1][i][j];
            if (i + adjN < n)
                c[i + adjN][j] = p[2][i][j] + p[3][i][j];
            if (i + adjN < n && j + adjM < m)
                c[i + adjN][j + adjM] = p[4][i][j] + p[0][i][j] - p[2][i][j] - p[6][i][j];
        }
    }
  
    for (int x = 0; x < 2; x++) {
        for (int y = 0; y < 2; y++) {
            for (int i = 0; i < adjN; i++) {
                delete[] As[x][y][i];
            }
            delete[] As[x][y];
        }
        delete[] As[x];
    }
    delete[] As;
  
    for (int x = 0; x < 2; x++) {
        for (int y = 0; y < 2; y++) {
            for (int i = 0; i < adjL; i++) {
                delete[] Bs[x][y][i];
            }
            delete[] Bs[x][y];
        }
        delete[] Bs[x];
    }
    delete[] Bs;
  
    for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
        switch (i) {
        case 0:
        case 3:
        case 5:
        case 7:
        case 9:
            for (int j = 0; j < adjL; j++) {
                delete[] s[i][j];
            }
            break;
        case 1:
        case 2:
        case 4:
        case 6:
        case 8:
            for (int j = 0; j < adjN; j++) {
                delete[] s[i][j];
            }
            break;
        }
        delete[] s[i];
    }
    delete[] s;
  
    for (int i = 0; i < 7; i++) {
        for (int j = 0; j < (n >> 1); j++) {
            delete[] p[i][j];
        }
        delete[] p[i];
    }
    delete[] p;
  
    return c;
}
  
int main()
{
    lld** matA;
    matA = new lld*[2];
    for (int i = 0; i < 2; i++)
        matA[i] = new lld[3];
    matA[0][0] = 1;
    matA[0][1] = 2;
    matA[0][2] = 3;
    matA[1][0] = 4;
    matA[1][1] = 5;
    matA[1][2] = 6;
  
    lld** matB;
    matB = new lld*[3];
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++)
        matB[i] = new lld[2];
    matB[0][0] = 7;
    matB[0][1] = 8;
    matB[1][0] = 9;
    matB[1][1] = 10;
    matB[2][0] = 11;
    matB[2][1] = 12;
  
    lld** matC = Strassen(matA, matB, 2, 3, 2);
    for (int i = 0; i < 2; i++) {
        for (int j = 0; j < 2; j++) {
            printf("%lld ", matC[i][j]);
        }
        printf("\n");
    }
  
    return 0;
}

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Output:  58   64
         139  154

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