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SQL AND and OR operators

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  • Difficulty Level : Basic
  • Last Updated : 04 Oct, 2021

In SQL, the AND & OR operators are used for filtering the data and getting precise results based on conditions. The SQL AND & OR operators are also used to combine multiple conditions. These two operators can be combined to test for multiple conditions in a SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement.

When combining these conditions, it is important to use parentheses so that the database knows what order to evaluate each condition.

  • The AND and OR operators are used with the WHERE clause.
  • These two operators are called conjunctive operators.

AND Operator: 

This operator displays only those records where both the conditions condition1 and condition2 evaluates to True. 

Syntax: 

SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE condition1 AND condition2 and ...conditionN;

table_name: name of the table
condition1,2,..N : first condition, second condition and so on

OR Operator: 

This operator displays the records where either one of the conditions condition1 and condition2 evaluates to True. That is, either condition1 is True or condition2 is True. 
Syntax: 

SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE condition1 OR condition2 OR... conditionN;

table_name: name of the table
condition1,2,..N : first condition, second condition and so on

Now, we consider a table database to demonstrate AND & OR operators with multiple cases:

table1

If suppose we want to fetch all the records from the Student table where Age is 18 and ADDRESS is Delhi. then the query will be:

Query:

SELECT * FROM Student WHERE Age = 18 AND ADDRESS = 'Delhi';

Output: 
 

ROLL_NONAMEADDRESSPHONEAge
1RamDelhiXXXXXXXXXX18
4SURESHDelhiXXXXXXXXXX18

 

Take another example, to fetch all the records from the Student table where NAME is Ram and Age is 18. 

Query:

SELECT * FROM Student WHERE Age = 18 AND NAME = 'Ram';

Output: 
 

ROLL_NONAMEADDRESSPHONEAge
1RamDelhiXXXXXXXXXX18

 

To fetch all the records from the Student table where NAME is Ram or NAME is SUJIT. 
 

Query:

SELECT * FROM Student WHERE NAME = 'Ram' OR NAME = 'SUJIT';

Output: 

ROLL_NONAMEADDRESSPHONEAge
1RamDelhiXXXXXXXXXX18
3SUJITROHTAKXXXXXXXXXX20
3SUJITROHTAKXXXXXXXXXX20

 

To fetch all the records from the Student table where NAME is Ram or Age is 20. 

Query:

SELECT * FROM Student WHERE NAME = 'Ram' OR Age = 20;

Output: 

ROLL_NONAMEADDRESSPHONEAge
1RamDelhiXXXXXXXXXX18
3SUJITROHTAKXXXXXXXXXX20
3SUJITROHTAKXXXXXXXXXX20

Combining AND and OR:

We can combine AND and OR operators in the below manner to write complex queries. 
 

Syntax: 

SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE condition1 AND (condition2 OR condition3);

 

Take an example to fetch all the records from the Student table where Age is 18 NAME is Ram or RAMESH.

Query:

SELECT * FROM Student WHERE Age = 18 AND (NAME = 'Ram' OR NAME = 'RAMESH');

Output: 

ROLL_NONAMEADDRESSPHONEAge
1RamDelhiXXXXXXXXXX18
2RAMESHGURGAONXXXXXXXXXX18

 

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