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Getting started with Databases

Last Updated : 18 Mar, 2024
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Databases and data are the fundamental building blocks of new technology. Data is the building blocks of information, like numbers, words, pictures, and more, that computers use and process. Databases, on the other hand, are like organized libraries, making sure this data is stored, retrieved, and managed effectively.

In this article, we’ll explore the different types of databases from the classic SQL to the trendy NoSQL and even Cloud databases. We will also explore the different databases for web development, backend development, mobile development, DevOps, data engineering, data science, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and even blockchain/web 3.0.


Types of Databases

What are Data & Databases?

Data refers to any piece of information. It can be numbers, words, images, sounds, or any other information that a computer can store and process. Data can be raw or processed.

A database is a structured collection of data that is organized in a way to facilitates efficient storage, retrieval, and manipulation of information. It acts as a centralized and organized repository where data can be stored, managed, and accessed by various applications or users.

What is DBMS?

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software system that enables users to define, create, maintain, and manipulate databases. It provides an interface between the database and the users or applications, allowing them to access and manage data efficiently.


The primary functions of a DBMS include:

  1. Data Definition: Defining the database structure, including specifying data types, relationships between data elements, and constraints.
  2. Data Manipulation: Inserting, updating, deleting, and retrieving data from the database using queries and commands.
  3. Data Security: Enforcing access control to ensure that only authorized users can access and modify the data.
  4. Data Integrity: Maintaining the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of the data through validation rules and constraints.
  5. Concurrency Control: Managing simultaneous access to the database by multiple users or applications to prevent conflicts and ensure data consistency.
  6. Backup and Recovery: Providing mechanisms for backing up data and recovering it in case of system failures or data corruption.

Types of Databases

There are various types of databases, each designed for specific use cases and requirements. Here are some common types of databases:

1. Relational Databases (SQL databases)

Relational databases(RDBMS) organize data into tables, where each table has rows and columns. These databases use structured query language (SQL) for defining and manipulating data.


These are the following relational databases:

  • MySQL
  • PostgreSQL
  • Oracle (PL/SQL, programming language extension for Oracle Database)
  • SQL Server
  • SQLite
  • MariaDB
  • IBM Db2

2. NoSQL Databases

These databases are designed to handle large volumes of unstructured, semi-structured, or structured data. NoSQL provide flexible schema designs and often offer horizontal scalability.


Types of NoSQL databases

  • Document databases: Store data in flexible, JSON-like documents.
  • Key-value stores: Simplest NoSQL databases, storing data as key-value pairs.
    • Redis
    • Amazon DynamoDB.
  • Column-family stores: Store data in columns rather than rows.
    • Apache Cassandra
    • HBase.
  • Graph databases: Optimize for data with complex relationships.
    • Neo4j
    • Amazon Neptune.

3. Cloud Databases

Cloud databases are online databases that store and manage data in a cloud computing environment. They offer various advantages such as scalability, reliability, and accessibility.


Cloud Database

  • Amazon RDS (Relational Database Service)
  • Amazon Aurora
  • Azure SQL Database
  • Google Cloud SQL
  • Microsoft Azure SQL Database
  • IBM Db2 on Cloud
  • Amazon DynamoDB
  • Azure Cosmos DB
  • Cloud Firestore(Google Cloud Firebase)

4. In-Memory Databases

In-memory databases store data primarily in RAM rather than on disk, resulting in faster data access.

  • Redis
  • Memcached

5. Time-Series Databases

Time-series databases are optimized for storing and querying time-stamped data, such as sensor data, IoT data, and financial market data.

  • InfluxDB
  • Prometheus

6. NewSQL Databases

NewSQL databases aim to combine the scalability and flexibility of NoSQL databases with the ACID compliance and SQL querying capabilities of traditional relational databases.

  • CockroachDB
  • Google Spanner.

7. Object-Oriented Databases

Object-oriented databases organize and store data in a way that reflects the principles of object-oriented programming (OOP). In OODBs, data is represented as objects, which encapsulate both data and the methods or functions that operate on that data.

  • db4o
  • ObjectDB

8. Hierarchical Databases

Hierarchical databases organize data in a tree-like structure where each record has one parent record and multiple child records, forming a hierarchy. Records are linked together in parent-child relationships, with each child record having only one parent.

  • IMS (Information Management System)

9. Network databases

Network databases are a type of database model that represents data as collections of records and sets, with relationships defined between records. Unlike hierarchical databases, where records form a strict parent-child hierarchy, network databases allow records to have multiple parent and child records, forming a network structure.

  • IDMS (Integrated Database Management System)

10. Centralized Database

Centralized databases are a type of database architecture where data is stored and managed in a single location or server. In this architecture, all data processing and management tasks are performed on the central server, and clients access the database remotely.

  • ISAM (Indexed Sequential Access Method)

11. Operational Database

Operational databases are databases optimized for supporting day-to-day operations and transactional processing within an organization. They are designed to efficiently handle tasks such as adding, modifying, and retrieving data in real-time to support business operations.

  • Amazon Aurora
  • Teradata

Databases Cheat Sheet

Cheat sheets are concise, quick-reference guides that provide key information about a particular topic. These are the cheat sheet of Different Databases.

Databases Interview Questions

Whether you’re preparing for a job interview or aiming to brush up on your database fundamentals, these interview question will help through some common and advanced database interview.

Database Query Based Questions

Query-based database questions are an essential component of practicing and mastering database skills. These questions typically involve retrieving, manipulating, and analyzing data stored within a database using SQL (Structured Query Language) or other query languages specific to the database management system being used.

  • Database Query Questions
  • SQL Exercises
  • MySQL Exercises
  • PostgreSQL Exercises
  • PL/SQL Exercises
  • MongoDB Exercises

Databases Comprehensive Learning Path

Whether you’re just starting your journey into the world of databases or aiming to enhance your expertise, this curated learning path is designed to guide us from the fundamentals to advanced concepts in a structured and accurate manner.

Database Design

Database design is a critical aspect of product development, providing the foundation for storing, managing, and accessing data effectively. It ensures that the product can scale, perform optimally, and maintain data integrity, ultimately contributing to its success in the market.

Database Connectivity

Database Connectivity refers to the capability of software applications to interact with and access data stored in databases. Database Connectivity is crucial for various types of applications, including web applications, mobile apps, desktop applications, and APIs.

  • How to Connect Database with Web Application
  • How to retrieve data from database to frontend?
  • How to send data from frontend to database?
  • How to connect frontend to SQL database?
  • How do you connect backend to database?
  • How to connect API to a database?

There are several mechanisms for establishing connectivity between applications and databases

  • ORM (Object-Relational Mapping)
  • ODM (Object-Document Mapping)
  • ODBC (Open Database Connectivity)

Database Interview Experience

In database interview experience series, we share some of the interview experience of individuals who’ve faced the challenges of database interviews. From SQL to NoSQL, each article offers insights and tips to help you ace your next interview.

Databases Required for Different Technology

In today’s technology-driven world, databases play a pivotal role in powering diverse applications across different domains. From Frontend Development to Artificial Intelligence, each technology has unique requirements for data storage, retrieval, and management. Let’s delve into the specific databases required for various technological domains.

1. Databases for Web Developement

In web development, databases serve as the backbone for storing, retrieving, and managing data critical for web applications. Whether you’re building a simple blog or a complex e-commerce platform, understanding databases is essential for creating dynamic and interactive websites. here we can learn in more depth about Which Database You Should Choose For Web Development?

2. Database for Mobile Development

In mobile development, databases play a pivotal role in storing, accessing, and organizing data crucial for mobile applications. Whether you’re crafting a fitness tracker or a social networking app, a solid understanding of databases is fundamental for delivering efficient and seamless user experiences.

3. Database for DevOps

In the DevOps, where the seamless integration of development and operations is paramount, the choice of database plays a crucial role in enabling efficient collaboration, continuous delivery, and automated deployment pipelines. DevOps teams typically require databases that offer high availability, scalability, and compatibility with automation tools.

4. Database for DataEngineer

Data engineers play a pivotal role in building and maintaining data infrastructure that powers analytics, machine learning, and decision-making processes within organizations. When selecting a database for data engineering tasks, considerations such as data volume, velocity, variety, and the need for real-time processing come to the forefront.

5. Database for DataScientist

For data scientists, the choice of database is critical as it directly impacts the efficiency of data exploration, modeling, and analysis tasks. Data scientists typically require databases that support complex queries, provide efficient data retrieval mechanisms, and seamlessly integrate with popular data science tools and libraries.

6. Database for Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) applications rely heavily on data to train machine learning models, make predictions, and drive decision-making processes. When selecting a database for AI tasks, considerations such as data scalability, model training efficiency, and real-time inference capabilities are paramount.

7. Database for Cloud Computing

Cloud computing has revolutionized the way organizations deploy, manage, and scale their IT infrastructure. When selecting a database for cloud computing environments, considerations such as scalability, reliability, and integration with cloud services become paramount.

8. Database for Blockchain/Web3.0

Blockchain technology, synonymous with decentralization and immutability, has revolutionized various industries, including finance, supply chain, and healthcare. When selecting a database for blockchain and Web3.0 applications, considerations such as data integrity, transparency, and consensus mechanisms come to the forefront.

Types of Database Jobs

The field of databases offers a diverse range of job roles, each requiring different levels of experience and expertise. As professionals progress in their careers, they can specialize in roles that align with their skills and interests. Let’s explore into different types of job roles, considering the required experience levels.

Job Role



Database Administrator (DBA)

Entry-level require 1-3 years of experience, while senior roles require 5+ years.

4 to 15 LPA

Database Developer

Entry-level roles 1-3 years of experience, while senior developers need 5+ years.

4 to 12 LPA

Data Analyst

Entry-level positions require 1-3 years of experience, while senior data analysts need 5+ years.

3 to 8 LPA

Data Engineer

Entry-level roles require 1-3 years of experience, while senior data engineers need 5+ years

4 to 15 LPA

Database Architect

Entry-level positions require 3-5 years of experience, while senior architects need 8+ years.

7 to 24 LPA

Database Manager

Mid-level management require 5-8 years of experience, while senior management roles need 10+ years.

8 to 18 LPA

Tips & Tricks to Improve Database Knowledge

Improving your database knowledge can be both rewarding and valuable in various fields, including software development, data analysis, and system administration. Here are some tips and tricks to help you enhance your understanding:

  • Understand the Fundamentals: Start by grasping the basic concepts such as tables, rows, columns, primary keys, foreign keys, indexes, and normalization. These form the foundation of database management.
  • Learn SQL: SQL (Structured Query Language) is the language used to communicate with relational databases. Familiarize yourself with SQL syntax, data manipulation (SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE), data definition (CREATE, ALTER, DROP), and data control (GRANT, REVOKE) statements.
  • Practice Regularly: The best way to solidify your knowledge is through practice. Work on SQL queries, database design, database exercises, and data manipulation tasks regularly.
  • Build Projects: Apply your database skills by working on real-world projects. Create a personal database-backed application, such as a task tracker, inventory management system, or blogging platform. Building something tangible reinforces your understanding and showcases your abilities.
  • Explore Different Database Systems: Get hands-on experience with various database management systems (DBMS) such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, MongoDB, or Redis. Each has its strengths, weaknesses, and use cases. Understanding multiple systems broadens your perspective and versatility.
  • Study Database Design: Learn about database design principles like normalization, denormalization, entity-relationship modeling, and schema design. A well-designed database is crucial for efficient data storage, retrieval, and maintenance.
  • Stay Updated: The field of database management is continually evolving with new technologies, best practices, and trends. Stay updated with the latest advancements, tools, and techniques by following industry news, attending webinars, and participating in conferences.


Well, this end of this amazing written getting started with Database. While database looks bit complex at first but through this guide you will learn database easily. So keep exploring and try to get mastery in it.

Getting Started with Database: FAQ

1. What is a database?

A database is an organized collection of data, typically stored and accessed electronically. It is designed to manage, store, and retrieve data efficiently.

2. Why are databases important?

Databases are important because they provide a structured way to store, organize, and manage large volumes of data. They are essential for applications that require data storage and retrieval.

3. What are the types of databases?

There are various types of databases, including relational databases, NoSQL databases, object-oriented databases, and graph databases, each with its own unique characteristics and use cases.

4. How do I choose the right database for my project?

Choosing the right database depends on factors such as the nature of the data, scalability requirements, performance needs, and the specific use case of your project. Consulting with a database expert can help in making the best choice.

5. What is the role of a database administrator (DBA)?

A database administrator is responsible for the performance, integrity, and security of a database. They manage the data, ensure the availability of the database, and optimize its performance as per the requirements.

6. How can I secure my database?

Securing a database involves implementing measures such as strong authentication, access controls, encryption, regular security audits, and keeping the database software up to date with security patches.

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