SQL | INSERT INTO Statement

The INSERT INTO statement of SQL is used to insert a new row in a table. There are two ways of using INSERT INTO statement for inserting rows:

  1. Only values: First method is to specify only the value of data to be inserted without the column names.
    Syntax:

    INSERT INTO table_name VALUES (value1, value2, value3,...);
    
    table_name: name of the table.
    value1, value2,.. : value of first column, second column,... for the new record
    
  2. Column names and values both: In the second method we will specify both the columns which we want to fill and their corresponding values as shown below:
    Syntax:

    INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2, column3,..) VALUES ( value1, value2, value3,..);
    table_name: name of the table.
    column1: name of first column, second column ...
    value1, value2, value3 : value of first column, second column,... for the new record

table1

Queries:

Method 1 (Inserting only values) :

INSERT INTO Student VALUES ('5','HARSH','WEST BENGAL','XXXXXXXXXX','19');

Output:
The table Student will now look like:

ROLL_NO NAME ADDRESS PHONE Age
1 Ram Delhi XXXXXXXXXX 18
2 RAMESH GURGAON XXXXXXXXXX 18
3 SUJIT ROHTAK XXXXXXXXXX 20
4 SURESH Delhi XXXXXXXXXX 18
3 SUJIT ROHTAK XXXXXXXXXX 20
2 RAMESH GURGAON XXXXXXXXXX 18
5 HARSH WEST BENGAL XXXXXXXXXX 19

Method 2 (Inserting values in only specified columns):

INSERT INTO Student (ROLL_NO, NAME, Age) VALUES ('5','PRATIK','19');

Output:
The table Student will now look like:

ROLL_NO NAME ADDRESS PHONE Age
1 Ram Delhi XXXXXXXXXX 18
2 RAMESH GURGAON XXXXXXXXXX 18
3 SUJIT ROHTAK XXXXXXXXXX 20
4 SURESH Delhi XXXXXXXXXX 18
3 SUJIT ROHTAK XXXXXXXXXX 20
2 RAMESH GURGAON XXXXXXXXXX 18
5 PRATIK null null 19

Notice that the columns for which the values are not provided are filled by null. Which is the default values for those columns.

Using SELECT in INSERT INTO Statement

We can use the SELECT statement with INSERT INTO statement to copy rows from one table and insert them into another table.The use of this statement is similar to that of INSERT INTO statement. The difference is that the SELECT statement is used here to select data from a different table. The different ways of using INSERT INTO SELECT statement are shown below:

  • Inserting all columns of a table: We can copy all the data of a table and insert into in a different table.
    Syntax:

    INSERT INTO first_table SELECT * FROM second_table;
    
    first_table: name of first table.
    second_table: name of second table.
    

    We have used the SELECT statement to copy the data from one table and INSERT INTO statement to insert in a different table.

  • Inserting specific columns of a table: We can copy only those columns of a table which we want to insert into in a different table.
    Syntax:

    INSERT INTO first_table(names_of_columns1) SELECT names_of_columns2 FROM second_table;
    
    first_table: name of first table.
    second_table: name of second table.
    names of columns1: name of columns separated by comma(,) for table 1.
    names of columns2: name of columns separated by comma(,) for table 2.
    

    We have used the SELECT statement to copy the data of the selected columns only from the second table and INSERT INTO statement to insert in first table.

  • Copying specific rows from a table: We can copy specific rows from a table to insert into another table by using WHERE clause with the SELECT statement. We have to provide appropriate condition in the WHERE clause to select specific rows.
    Syntax:

    INSERT INTO table1 SELECT * FROM table2 WHERE condition;
    
    first_table: name of first table.
    second_table: name of second table.
    condition: condition to select specific rows.
    

Table2: LateralStudent

ROLL_NO NAME ADDRESS PHONE Age
7 SOUVIK DUMDUM XXXXXXXXXX 18
8 NIRAJ NOIDA XXXXXXXXXX 19
9 SOMESH ROHTAK XXXXXXXXXX 20

Queries:

    • Method 1(Inserting all rows and columns):
      INSERT INTO Student SELECT * FROM LateralStudent;
      

      Output:
      This query will insert all the data of the table LateralStudent in the table Student. The table Student will now look like,

      ROLL_NO NAME ADDRESS PHONE Age
      1 Ram Delhi XXXXXXXXXX 18
      2 RAMESH GURGAON XXXXXXXXXX 18
      3 SUJIT ROHTAK XXXXXXXXXX 20
      4 SURESH Delhi XXXXXXXXXX 18
      3 SUJIT ROHTAK XXXXXXXXXX 20
      2 RAMESH GURGAON XXXXXXXXXX 18
      7 SOUVIK DUMDUM XXXXXXXXXX 18
      8 NIRAJ NOIDA XXXXXXXXXX 19
      9 SOMESH ROHTAK XXXXXXXXXX 20

 

  • Method 2(Inserting specific columns):
    INSERT INTO Student(ROLL_NO,NAME,Age) SELECT ROLL_NO, NAME, Age FROM LateralStudent;
    

    Output:
    This query will insert the data in the columns ROLL_NO, NAME and Age of the table LateralStudent in the table Student and the remaining columns in the Student table will be filled by null which is the default value of the remaining columns. The table Student will now look like,

    ROLL_NO NAME ADDRESS PHONE Age
    1 Ram Delhi XXXXXXXXXX 18
    2 RAMESH GURGAON XXXXXXXXXX 18
    3 SUJIT ROHTAK XXXXXXXXXX 20
    4 SURESH Delhi XXXXXXXXXX 18
    3 SUJIT ROHTAK XXXXXXXXXX 20
    2 RAMESH GURGAON XXXXXXXXXX 18
    7 SOUVIK null null 18
    8 NIRAJ null null 19
    9 SOMESH null null 20
  • Select specific rows to insert:
    INSERT INTO Student SELECT * FROM LateralStudent WHERE Age = 18;
    

    Output:
    This query will select only the first row from table LateralStudent to insert into the table Student. The table Student will now look like,

    ROLL_NO NAME ADDRESS PHONE Age
    1 Ram Delhi XXXXXXXXXX 18
    2 RAMESH GURGAON XXXXXXXXXX 18
    3 SUJIT ROHTAK XXXXXXXXXX 20
    4 SURESH Delhi XXXXXXXXXX 18
    3 SUJIT ROHTAK XXXXXXXXXX 20
    2 RAMESH GURGAON XXXXXXXXXX 18
    7 SOUVIK DUMDUM XXXXXXXXXX 18

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