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Print reverse of a string using recursion

  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 19 Jul, 2021

Write a recursive function to print reverse of a given string. 
Program: 
 

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C++




// C++ program to reverse a string using recursion
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
/* Function to print reverse of the passed string */
void reverse(string str)
{
    if(str.size() == 0)
    {
        return;
    }
    reverse(str.substr(1));
    cout << str[0];
}
 
/* Driver program to test above function */
int main()
{
    string a = "Geeks for Geeks";
    reverse(a);
    return 0;
}
 
// This is code is contributed by rathbhupendra

C




// C program to reverse a string using recursion
# include <stdio.h>
 
/* Function to print reverse of the passed string */
void reverse(char *str)
{
   if (*str)
   {
       reverse(str+1);
       printf("%c", *str);
   }
}
 
/* Driver program to test above function */
int main()
{
   char a[] = "Geeks for Geeks";
   reverse(a);
   return 0;
}

Java




// Java program to reverse a string using recursion
 
class StringReverse
{
    /* Function to print reverse of the passed string */
    void reverse(String str)
    {
        if ((str==null)||(str.length() <= 1))
           System.out.println(str);
        else
        {
            System.out.print(str.charAt(str.length()-1));
            reverse(str.substring(0,str.length()-1));
        }
    }
     
    /* Driver program to test above function */
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        String str = "Geeks for Geeks";
        StringReverse obj = new StringReverse();
        obj.reverse(str);
    }   
}

Python




# Python program to reverse a string using recursion
 
# Function to print reverse of the passed string
def reverse(string):
    if len(string) == 0:
        return
     
    temp = string[0]
    reverse(string[1:])
    print(temp, end='')
 
# Driver program to test above function
string = "Geeks for Geeks"
reverse(string)
 
# A single line statement to reverse string in python
# string[::-1]
 
# This code is contributed by Bhavya Jain

C#




// C# program to reverse
// a string using recursion
using System;
 
class GFG
{
    // Function to print reverse
    // of the passed string
    static void reverse(String str)
    {
        if ((str == null) || (str.Length <= 1))
        Console.Write(str);
     
        else
        {
            Console.Write(str[str.Length-1]);
            reverse(str.Substring(0,(str.Length-1)));
        }
    }
     
    // Driver Code
    public static void Main()
    {
        String str = "Geeks for Geeks";
        reverse(str);
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by Sam007

PHP




<?php
// PHP program to reverse
// a string using recursion
 
// Function to print reverse
// of the passed string
function reverse($str)
{
    if (($str == null) ||
        (strlen($str) <= 1))
    echo ($str);
 
    else
    {
        echo ($str[strlen($str) - 1]);
        reverse(substr($str, 0,
               (strlen($str) - 1)));
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
$str = "Geeks for Geeks";
reverse($str);
 
// This code is contributed by
// Manish Shaw(manishshaw1)
?>

Javascript




<script>
        // JavaScript Program for the above approach
 
 
        /* Function to print reverse of the passed string */
        function reverse(str, len) {
            if (len == str.length) {
                return;
            }
            reverse(str, len + 1);
 
            document.write(str[len]);
 
        }
 
        /* Driver program to test above function */
 
        let a = "Geeks for Geeks";
 
        reverse(a, 0);
 
    // This code is contributed by Potta Lokesh
    </script>

Output: 
 

skeeG rof skeeG

Explanation: Recursive function (reverse) takes string pointer (str) as input and calls itself with next location to passed pointer (str+1). Recursion continues this way when the pointer reaches ‘\0’, all functions accumulated in stack print char at passed location (str) and return one by one.
Time Complexity: O(n^2) as substr() method has a time complexity of O(k) where k is the size of the returned string. So for every recursive call, we are reducing the size of the string by one, which leads to a series like (k-1)+(k-2)+…+1 = k*(k-1)/2 = O(k^2) = O(n^2)
See Reverse a string for other methods to reverse string.
Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.
 




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