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Elements of Communication Process

Last Updated : 01 Mar, 2024
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The process of exchange of ideas, views, facts, feelings, etc., between two or more persons in order to reach a common understanding is known as Communication.  

“Communication is the sum of all things, a person does when he wants to create an understanding in the minds of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding” – Louis Allen

“Communication is a process by which people create and share information with one another in order to reach common understanding” – Rogers

Elements of Communication Process

Elements of Communication Process

In the process of communication, at least two persons are required: Sender and Receiver. The process of communication begins when a sender wishes to convey some idea, facts, information or opinion to the receiver. The idea is conceived by the sender and is put in such terms that can be conveyed. He decides the channel of communication and conveys the idea. The idea is received by the receiver, and after understanding the idea, action is taken according to the information or direction received from the source.

The process of communication involves the following steps:

1. Sender: The person who conveys his thoughts, message or ideas to the receiver is known as the sender. He is at the starting point of the communication system and represents the source of communication.

E.g., In a classroom, a teacher is a sender.

2. Message: The subject matter of communication is termed as messages. It includes ideas, feelings, suggestions, order, etc., which a sender wants to convey to the receiver. 

3. Encoding: The process of converting messages into communication symbols, which may be understood by the receiver. It includes words, pictures, gestures, symbols, etc. Encoding translates the internal thought of the sender into a language which can be understandable.

4. Media: The path, channel or medium through which encoded message is transmitted to the receiver is known as media. It is the carrier of the message. It can be in written form, face to face, through telephone,  letter, internet, etc.

5. Decoding: The process of translating the encoded message into an effective language, which can be understood by the receiver is known as decoding. In this, the encoded symbols of the sender are converted. 

6. Receiver: The person who receives the message of the sender is known as the receiver. 

E.g., Students are receivers in the classroom.

7. Feedback: In order to complete the process of communication, feedback is essential. The process of reversal of communication in which the receiver expresses his reaction to the sender of the message is known as feedback. Feedback ensures that the receiver has received and understood the message. 

8. Noise: Any construction or hindrance which hampers the communication process is known as noise. The hindrance may be caused to the sender, message or receiver. It acts as a barrier to effective communication and because of this message is interpreted differently by the receiver. Disturbance in the telephone line, inattentive receiver, faulty decoding, poor internet connection, improper gestures and postures, etc., are some examples of noise.

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