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Rainfall in India

Last Updated : 15 Nov, 2023
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Rainfall in India: India is a vast country with diverse weather conditions in different regions. Rainfall in India varies in different regions. Essentially, the Southwest Monsoon is considered the main source of rainfall in India. India undergoes mainly two types of rainfall the southwest and the northeast monsoon. The Southwest monsoon Starts in June and ends in September Whereas the Northeast monsoon starts in October and ends in December. Generally, The southwest Monsoon causes the largest or average rainfall in India with 75% of annual rainfall on the other hand NorthEast monsoon brings the lowest rainfall with 25% of rainfall annually.

In this article, we have covered the Highest, lowest, and average rainfall in India, heavy rainfall in the north Indian state annual rainfall, and many more.

Rainfall In India

Geographically, Every region in India has different weather and climate conditions. Some have to face high rainfall while other experiences the lowest. India experiences two main types of monsoon Southwest monsoon which is also known as long rain and northeast monsoon. The interaction between air masses, that worm, moist air mass over the Indian Ocean and cooler, dry air mass over Central South Asia Causes the Southwest monsoon in India Whereas The northeast Monsoon is caused by the Interaction of two cold air masses over Siveria and warm air mass over Bay of Bengal. Essentially, In India, The western coast, like Mumbai and Kerala, receives the highest amount of rainfall while the eastern coast like Odisha, and Kolkata goes through the lowest rainfall. The northeast region like Assam and Meghalaya, experiences heavy rainfall with 2000mm annual rain.

Rainfall Distribution Map

Rainfall distribution in India

Rainfall Distribution in India

Rainfall Distribution in India

Rainfall Distribution in India: Rainfall in India is irregular of the year but usually it starts in June and ends in September. Koppen Climate classification has divided rainfall between India into seven climatic regions:

  1. Alpine
  2. Sub-tropical arid desert
  3. Sub-tropical semi-arid
  4. Tropical semi-arid
  5. Tropical Savannah
  6. Sub-tropical humid
  7. Tropical rainforest

On an average rainfall in Indian States are 118 cm annually according to the data of Meteoroogical Department.

Following are the Distribution of Rainfall Distribution in India.

Extreme Precipitation Regions: The areas in the Northeastern regions and the windward side of the western Ghats experience an average of about 400 cm of rainfall annually and areas such as Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and also hilly areas of Western Ghats are a host to tropical rainforests and the highest rainfall in India and also in the world is recorded in the village of Meghalaya called Mawsynram.

Heavy Precipitation Regions: The regions which experience 200-300 cm of rainfall come to belong to these zones. Most parts of eastern India come under this zone and are home to tropical rainforests. States like West Bengal, Tripura, Nagaland, Manipur, Odisha, and Bihar are importantly included in the zone and most of the areas of the sub-Himalayan belt also fall under this zone.

Moderate Precipitation Regions: The areas which experience 100 to 200 cm of rainfall include some parts of West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and also the leeward area of Western Ghats. The most common natural vegetation which is present in the area is wet deciduous forests.

Scanty Precipitation Region: The areas which have 50 to 100 cm of rainfall which consists of parts of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, and the western part of Uttar Pradesh. Some commonly found flora include tropical grasslands, savannahs, and dry deciduous forests.

Desert and Semi-desert Regions: The desert and semi-desert are the regions that receive rainfall below 50 cm and states which are included are Rajasthan, Gujarat, and areas that are classified as desert or semi-desert based on the rainfall received. Some areas of Jammu and Kashmir such as Ladakh is also included in this zone and are known as cold desert. Savannah vegetation is found in wetter regions and the lowest rainfall is present in Ruyli village in Rajasthan.

The distribution of rainfall in India is dependent on and impacted by the Thar Desert and the Himalayas. The temperature and pressure keep changing over the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal and the southern portion of the Pacific Ocean come to play important role in the monsoonal rains over the country.

Indian Monsoon

The Indian Monsoon is a large-scale seasonal wind system that affects the climate of India and its surrounding areas. The monsoon brings with it heavy rains and strong winds, which can often lead to flooding and other natural disasters. The monsoon typically lasts from June to September, with peak rainfall occurring in July and August. The Indian Monsoon is caused by a difference in air pressure between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. During the summer months, the air over the Bay of Bengal is warmer than the air over the Arabian Sea. 

This difference in temperature creates a low-pressure system over the Bay of Bengal, which causes the winds to blow from the sea toward the land. As these winds reach India, they are forced upwards by the Himalayan mountains, causing them to cool and condense into rain clouds. The resulting rainfall often leads to flooding in low-lying areas of India. While the Indian Monsoon is vital for agriculture in India, it also brings with it a number of dangers. Flooding is a major concern during the monsoon season, as are landslides and lightning strikes. In addition, diseases such as malaria and dengue fever often spread during the wetter conditions brought on by the monsoon.

Highest rainfall in India

Mawsynram place in India has the highest average rainfall recorded annually. Mawsynram situated in the state of Meghalaya Which is called land of the clouds. India is considered as the wette()st place, with approximately 11,873 mm (467 in) of rain per annum. The word Meghalaya means ‘land of the clouds’. India is very diverse geographically. Right from the culture, food, language, and topography, the diversity is quite evident across the country. Thar Desert on the western side of the Indian peninsula is driest placesand the wettest place, Cherrapunji in the east, which is also the wettest place in the world. This surreal diversity is what makes India truly amazing!

The States in India which experiences the highest rainfall include Sikkim, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and West Bengal. The following are the top 7 highest rainfall areas in India:

  1. Mawsynram, Meghalaya 
  2. Agumbe, Karnataka
  3. Cherrapunji, Meghalaya
  4. Mahabaleshwar, Maharashtra 
  5. Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh
  6. Amboli, Maharashtra 
  7. Gangtok, Sikkim

Average rainfall in India

The Average Rainfall in India is around 125 cm (890mm). Every year the rainfall distribution in India varies due to it geographysical condition like distance from the sea, hight from the sea level, etc. On average, India receives approximately 1,170 millimeters (46 inches) of rainfall annually.

Every year, the Average Rainfall in India is around 125 cm of rain (890 mm). Due to the country‚Äôs very varied geography, including relief or topography, distance from the sea, etc., there is a significant variance in the amount of rainfall it receives each year. On average, India receives approximately 1,170 millimeters (46 inches) of rainfall annually. However, it is important to note that the distribution of rainfall is not uniform throughout the country. The coastal regions along the western coast, such as the Western Ghats and the northeastern states, receive higher rainfall, ranging from 2,500 to 5,000 millimeters (98 to 197 inches) annual.

Jaisalmer district located in the state of Rajasthan has the lowest annual rainfall in India. It has a rainfall measuring upto just a small number of 8.3 cms. Ruyli that is located in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan is particularly known to receive the lowest amount of rainfall.

Lowest Rainfall in India

Jaisalmer, Rajasthan has the lowest Rainfall in India Annually. Particularly, the area named Ruyli located in Jaisalmer is famous for the lowest rainfall. This city experiences annual rainfall of 210mm.

Artificial rainfall in India

The Cloud Seeding Technique is gaining popularity As many of the experiments on it is being successful. Recently, according to report of American Meterological Society, the area in Maharashtra(India) experiences 18% more rainfall than normal conditions.

Now due to its success India is giving more investment into it. Scientists from Indian Institute of Tropical Meterology, Pune Conducted study to toexperiment over Artificial rainfall or Cloud seeding Which was involved in hygroscopic, warm convective clouds with a cloud base height < Zero.

Read Further

  1. Monsoons in India
  2. Southwest Monsoon and Northeast Monsoon
  3. Characteristics and effects of monsoons in India
  4. How is Monsoon known for its Uncertainties?
  5. Burst of monsoon and Break of monsoon

Rainfall in India – FAQs

What is the average annual rainfall in India?

The average annual rainfall in India is about 100 inches and there is presence of regional variations.

Is rainfall in India seasonal?

The rainfall in India is seasonal and accounts between June and lasts till September.

What is the annual rainfall in India?

The annual rainfall in India is about 925 millimetres during the monsoon season.

What is the historical data of rainfall in India?

Precipitation in India averaged 1120.59 mm from 1901 until 2021, reaching an all time high of 1344.51 mm in 1917 and a record low of 856.58 mm in 1918.

What is the annual rainfall of India?

On average the annual rainfall in India recorded in Mawsynram, Meghalaya, India with approximately 11,873 mm . It is also known as the ‘land of the clouds’

What is the main cause of rainfall in India?

The main cause of rainfall in India is the seasonal reersal of winds. The monsoon typically lasts from June to September. The Indian Monsoon also is caused by a difference in air pressure between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.

Who provides the rainfall data in India?

India Meteorological Department (IMD) is the central agency which provides, and archives rainfall data in India. The IMD also manages a large rain gauge network consisting of various types of observatories.

What does 100 mm of rain mean?

It is the height to which water would stand if all the rainwater was allowed to stay at the place without flowing off. Therefore, a rain of 100 mm means that if the rainwater had been collected in a tank, it would have water to a depth of 100 mm.

Which city records highest rainfall in India?

Mawsynram. Recognized as the wettest place in in India, Mawsynram is the perfect destination that holds the beauty of rains. It is recognized in Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, Mawsynram records 11,872 mm of rainfall during monsoons.

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