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Factors Affecting the Climate of India

Last Updated : 01 Apr, 2024
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The factors which affect the climate of India include pressure and wind systems, altitude, relief, features, latitude, ocean currents, and the distance from the sea. Climate controls a number of factors like that of temperature and the climate of India is determined by various factors. Climate can be called the steady weather condition of an area. There are various factors that influence India’s climate, they are explained below:

  1. Latitude
  2. Altitude
  3. Pressure and winds
    • Upper air circulation
    • Pressure and surface winds
    • Tropical cyclones and western cyclonic disturbances
  4. Relief
  5. Distance from the Sea
Factors Affecting Climate of India

Factors Affecting Climate of India

Factors Affecting the Climate of India

The factors which affect the climate of India are:


India’s climate relies upon its latitudinal degree. The Tropic of Cancer isolates the country into two halves. One is the tropical climate which lies south of the Tropic of Cancer and another is the Subtropical climate which lies North of the Tropic of Cancer. The Tropic of Cancer goes through the centre of the country from the Rann of Kachchh in the west to Mizoram in the east.

For example, As the earth is round, daylight doesn’t reach wherever similarly. The temperature diminishes as we move from the equator to the posts.


The Himalayas in the North have an average height of around 6000 m Preventing the cold twists from Central Asia from entering the subcontinent. In light of these mountains, the subcontinent encounters nearly gentle winters. India likewise has a tremendous waterfront region where the greatest height is around 30 meters.

For example, Areas at higher elevations have colder temperatures. Temperature as a rule diminishes by 1°C for every 100 meters in elevation.

Pressure and Winds

The climate and related atmospheric conditions in India are represented by the accompanying environmental circumstances:

a) Upper-Air Circulation

The upper air circulation of the district is overwhelmed by a westerly flow which is represented by a Jet stream. The place of the jet stream in summer is North of the Himalayas and in winter the jet stream will be South of the Himalayas. 

For example, Jet streams are quick streaming, restricted, wandering air currents in the atmosphere. 

b) Pressure And Surface Winds 

There is a high-pressure zone north of the Himalayas in winter. Cold dry breezes blow from this district to the low-pressure regions over the seas to the south. India lies in the locale of Northeasterly breezes. In summer, a low-pressure region creates over inside Asia as well as finished northwestern India. This causes a total inversion of the course of winds during summer. 

c) Tropical Cyclones And Western Cyclonic Disturbances 

Tropical cyclones start over the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. These unsettling influences are important for the easterly flow and hit the coastal regions of the nation. The greater part of these cyclones is exceptionally damaging because of high wind speed and heavy rains going with them. Occur during monsoon and in October and November. The weather peculiarities of the cold weather months got by the westerly stream from the Mediterranean area are influenced by western cyclic disturbances. They generally impact the climate of the north and north-western districts.


Elements like temperature, air pressure, wind direction, and also speed, amount, and distribution of rainfall are some factors that are affected by the physiography and relief of India. During the months of June – September, the wind sides of the Western Ghats and the Assam receive tremendous amounts of rainfall and at the same time, the southern plateau stays dry because of the leeward position along the Western Ghats.

Distance from the Sea

The equable climate in large coastal areas is because of the long coastline and the interior areas of India are very far from the moderating influence of the sea. Thus, extremes of climate exist in such areas. The residents of Mumbai and Konkan coast have little extremes and seasonal weather patterns. Seasonal differences are seen in the interior of the country like Kanpur, Delhi, and Amritsar.

Related Links

  1. Weather and Climate
  2. Monsoon in India
  3. Climate of India

FAQs on Factors Affecting the Climate of India

Q 1. What are the 5 factors affecting the climate?


5 factors that affect the climate include latitude, altitude, relief, currents, winds, and distance from the sea.

Q 2. What are the factors that affect the climate?


The factors that affect the climate of an area include various natural factors which include the latitude, elevation and also the presence of ocean currents.

Q 3. What factors affect the climate of a place?


The climate of a place is affected by various factors like latitude, elevation, nearby water, ocean currents, and prevailing winds.

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