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Peninsular Plateau of India

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Peninsular Plateau: Peninsular plateau refers to the tableland of crystalline, igneous, and metamorphic rocks from the past and is produced by a breakup and drifting of the Gondwana continent, making it one of the oldest landmasses. The plateaus are characterized by vast and shallow valleys and rounded hills. The two important sections include the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.

Central Highlands refers to the section of the Peninsular plateau to the north of the Narmada River, which covers a major portion of the Malwa plateau. Both Satpura ranges as well as Aravallis define the Vidhya range. The sandy, as well as the stony desert of Rajasthan, blends in a farther westward extension.

Peninsular Plateau of India Map

Peninsular-Plateau-of-India-(MAP)-(1)

Peninsular Plateau

Characteristics of Peninsular Plateau

Certain important characteristics of the peninsular plateau are as follows:

  1. The total size of the peninsular plateau is about 16 lakh square kilometers.
  2. The plateau rises at 600-900 meters above sea level on average.
  3. Most of the peninsular rivers run in the direction from west to east, demonstrating the overall slope of the peninsula.
  4. The only exception of the same is Narmada-Tapi, which flows from east to west.
  5. The older landform of the world is Peninsular Plateau.
  6. The peninsular plateau also comprises smaller plateaus like hill ranges, river basins as well as valleys.
  7. The peninsular plateau consists of both rounded and vast shallow valleys.
  8. The plateau is broadly divided into two sections and each of them comprises smaller plateaus.

Two Important Plateaus

The two important plateaus include:

  1. The Malwa Plateau: The Malwa Plateau is bounded on the south by the Vidhya range, in the west by the Aravalli range, and on the east by the Chota Nagpur Plateau.
  2. Deccan Plateau: The Satpura range (north), the hills of the western ghats (west), and the hills of the eastern ghats define the Deccan plateau.

Importance of the Peninsular Plateau

The peninsular plateau is one of the most important for the economic development of the country, with the presence of abundant natural resources. The Peninsular plateau is significant because of the following reasons:

  1. Some of the most important, as well as valuable metal deposits which are present in India, include iron, bauxite, mica, gold, copper, and others, which are found in the peninsular plateau. The peninsular plateau is also home to well-known mines like Kolar, Badiladia, Singhbum, and Korba.
  2. Coal mines are very important for the industrial growth of India, and the peninsular plateau is also known as home to many of the country’s best coal mines and also home to some well-known mines like Ranighanj, Singareni, and also Jharia.
  3. The peninsular plateau is also home to several streams of rivers, which provide important areas for the installation of hydroelectric plants, which are very important as well as critical for components of the region’s economic growth. Some of India’s most important hydropower plants include Srisailam and Koyna hydropower plants.
  4. The flora and fauna of both the eastern as well as western ghats, which define the boundaries are very diverse and include different varieties like teak, sandalwood, rosewood, and also essential timber woods and the Nilambur teak is globally recognized with a GI designation.

The Stretch of Peninsular Plateau

The peninsular plateau is divided into Vindhyas, the Satpura, Mahadeo, Maikal, and Sarguja ranges and divides the high plateau from the Indo-Gangetic plains, which range from 300 to 900 meters.

The peninsular plateau stretched from Rajasthan and extends to the Assam plateau and also flanks on the west through the Sahyadris on the western ghats and on the east of the western ghats, with a slope that runs towards the west and east. The total size is around 16 lakhs square kilometers and peninsular plateau uplands are the largest divisions physically of the country.

Topography of Peninsular Plateau

The topography of the peninsular plateau comprises several small as well as big plateaus with smoother surfaces and also broadly rounded tops that seldom rise up to 600 meters.

Denudation and its effects have been stopped by the hard rocks and the subordinate hills are remnants of the previous systems of mountains like the Aravalli hills or the stricter elements of the same plateau which have weathered erosion. Volcanic eruptions have been occurring for several places and also cover broad swaths of northwest Deccan having a thick volcanic lava mantle.

Central Highlands

It is otherwise called the Madhya Bharat Pathar or Madhya Bharat level It is toward the east of the Marwar or Mewar Upland. A large portion of the level includes the bowl of the Chambal waterway which streams in a break valley. The Kali Sindh, moving from Rana Pratap Sagar, The Banas coursing through Mewar level, and The Parwan and the Parbati moving from Madhya Pradesh are its principal feeders. It is a moving level with adjusted slopes made out of sandstone. Thick backwoods develop here.

The Malwa Plateau 

The territories of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan cover the Malwa Plateau. This level has a double waste framework, the Narmada, Tapi, and Mahi streams towards the Arabian Ocean, and Chambal and Betwa towards the Bay of Bengal. For the most part, covered with dark soil stores, the Malwa Plateau encounters weighty magma. The Plateau contains tropical dry teak timberlands. 

Notwithstanding Chambal, waterways like Sindh, Ken, Kali, Betwa, and Parbati. These dark soil stores have an extraordinary dampness maintenance limit and contain an extreme focus on the sand. Taken apart by various streams, the Chambal Ravines mark the Malwa Plateau.

The Bundel Khand 

Situated in the Madhya Pradesh condition of focal India, the level comprises the Vindhya slopes and is analyzed by gorges. It has a height of 300-600 m above ocean level. This Plateau has a decrepit geography and is set apart by different glutting channels like Tons, Kenn, Dhasan, and Betwa.

The Betwa stream situated at this level is utilized to produce hydropower and is astounding for outfitting water system offices. It creates great quality jewels, stone, gneiss, and sandstone. It additionally develops harvests like wheat, cotton, grain, sorghum, and so on.

The Baghel khand 

Made of limestones and sandstones on the west and rock on the east. It is limited by the Son Waterway on the north. The focal piece of the level goes about as a water split between the Son waste framework in the north and the Mahanadi waterway framework in the south. The locale is lopsided with general height fluctuating from 150 m to 1,200 m. The Bhanrer and Kaimur are found near the box pivot. The overall horizontality of the layers shows that this region has not gone through any significant unsettling influence.

The Chota Nagpur plateau

Chota Nagpur level addresses the northeastern projection of the Indian Peninsula. For the most part in Jharkhand, the northern piece of Chhattisgarh, and the Purulia locale of West Bengal. The Son stream streams in the northwest of the level and joins the Ganga. The typical rise of the level is 700 m above ocean level. This level is made essentially out of Gondwana rocks.

The Rajmahal Hills framing the northeastern edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau is generally made of basalt and are covered by magma streams. They run in north-south bearings and ascend to an average height of 400 m (the most noteworthy mount is 567 m). These slopes have been taken apart into isolated levels. This level is made principally out of Gondwana rocks. The level is depleted by various waterways and streams every which way and presents an outspread waste example. {Drainage Pattern}.Streams like the Damodar, the North Koel, the South Koel, and the Barkar have created broad waste bowls. The Damodar waterway moves through the center of this district in a cracked valley from west to east. Here are observed the Gondwana coal fields which give heft of coal in India.

Conclusion

The peninsular plateau is one of the ancient landmasses which is present, made of igneous and metamorphic hard crystalline rocks and the plateau is triangular, broad in the north and narrowing in the south while approaching Kanyakumari. The plateau stretches from the Aravalli range in the west to the Chota Nagpur plateau in the east.

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FAQs on the Peninsular Plateau of India

1. Which rivers flow to the east of the peninsular plateau?

The Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, Cauvery, and Pennar flow in the east and towards the Bay of Bengal.

2. Name the rivers which flow west of the peninsular plateau of India.

The rivers that flow west are Narmada and Tapti.

3. Which river divides the plateau into two equal parts?

Narmada River divides the plateau into two equal parts.

4. What are the total numbers of peninsular plateaus?

There are 3 total peninsular plateaus which include The Deccan plateau, central highlands and northern plateaus.



Last Updated : 11 Dec, 2023
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