# Print shortest path to print a string on screen

Given a screen containing alphabets from A-Z, we can go from one character to another characters using a remote. The remote contains left, right, top and bottom keys.

Find shortest possible path to type all characters of given string using the remote. Initial position is top left and all characters of input string should be printed in order.

Screen:

```A B C D E
F G H I J
K L M N O
P Q R S T
U V W X Y
Z
```

Example:

```Input: “GEEK”
Output:
Move Down
Move Right
Press OK
Move Up
Move Right
Move Right
Move Right
Press OK
Press OK
Move Left
Move Left
Move Left
Move Left
Move Down
Move Down
Press OK
```

## Recommended: Please solve it on “PRACTICE ” first, before moving on to the solution.

The idea is to consider screen as 2D-matrix of characters. Then we consider all characters of given string one by one and print out the shortest path between current character and next character in the matrix. In order to find shortest path, we consider the coordinates of current character and next character in the matrix. Based on the difference between x and y values of current and next character’s coordinates, we move left, right, top or bottom. i.e.

```If row difference is negative, we move up
If row difference is positive, we move down
If column difference is negative, we go left
If column difference is positive, we go right
```

Below is implementation of above idea

## C++

 `// C++ program to print shortest possible path to ` `// type all characters of given string using a remote ` `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std; ` ` `  `// Function to print shortest possible path to ` `// type all characters of given string using a remote ` `void` `printPath(string str) ` `{ ` `    ``int` `i = 0; ` `    ``// start from character 'A' present at position (0, 0) ` `    ``int` `curX = 0, curY = 0; ` `    ``while` `(i < str.length()) ` `    ``{ ` `        ``// find cordinates of next character ` `        ``int` `nextX = (str[i] - ``'A'``) / 5; ` `        ``int` `nextY = (str[i] - ``'B'` `+ 1) % 5; ` ` `  `        ``// Move Up if destination is above ` `        ``while` `(curX > nextX) ` `        ``{ ` `            ``cout << ``"Move Up"` `<< endl; ` `            ``curX--; ` `        ``} ` ` `  `        ``// Move Left if destination is to the left ` `        ``while` `(curY > nextY) ` `        ``{ ` `            ``cout << ``"Move Left"` `<< endl; ` `            ``curY--; ` `        ``} ` ` `  `        ``// Move down if destination is below ` `        ``while` `(curX < nextX) ` `        ``{ ` `            ``cout << ``"Move Down"` `<< endl; ` `            ``curX++; ` `        ``} ` ` `  `        ``// Move Right if destination is to the right ` `        ``while` `(curY < nextY) ` `        ``{ ` `            ``cout << ``"Move Right"` `<< endl; ` `            ``curY++; ` `        ``} ` ` `  `        ``// At this point, destination is reached ` `        ``cout << ``"Press OK"` `<< endl; ` `        ``i++; ` `    ``} ` `} ` ` `  `// Driver code ` `int` `main() ` `{ ` `    ``string str = ``"COZY"``; ` ` `  `    ``printPath(str); ` ` `  `    ``return` `0; ` `} `

## Java

 `// Java program to print shortest possible path to ` `// type all characters of given string using a remote ` ` `  `class` `GFG  ` `{ ` `    ``// Function to print shortest possible path to ` `    ``// type all characters of given string using a remote ` `    ``static` `void` `printPath(String str) ` `    ``{ ` `        ``int` `i = ``0``; ` `        ``// start from character 'A' present at position (0, 0) ` `        ``int` `curX = ``0``, curY = ``0``; ` `        ``while` `(i < str.length()) ` `        ``{ ` `            ``// find cordinates of next character ` `            ``int` `nextX = (str.charAt(i) - ``'A'``) / ``5``; ` `            ``int` `nextY = (str.charAt(i) - ``'B'` `+ ``1``) % ``5``; ` `  `  `            ``// Move Up if destination is above ` `            ``while` `(curX > nextX) ` `            ``{ ` `                ``System.out.println(``"Move Up"``); ` `                ``curX--; ` `            ``} ` `  `  `            ``// Move Left if destination is to the left ` `            ``while` `(curY > nextY) ` `            ``{ ` `                ``System.out.println(``"Move Left"``); ` `                ``curY--; ` `            ``} ` `  `  `            ``// Move down if destination is below ` `            ``while` `(curX < nextX) ` `            ``{ ` `                ``System.out.println(``"Move Down"``); ` `                ``curX++; ` `            ``} ` `  `  `            ``// Move Right if destination is to the right ` `            ``while` `(curY < nextY) ` `            ``{ ` `                ``System.out.println(``"Move Right"``); ` `                ``curY++; ` `            ``} ` `  `  `            ``// At this point, destination is reached ` `            ``System.out.println(``"Press OK"``); ` `            ``i++; ` `        ``} ` `    ``} ` `     `  `    ``// driver program ` `    ``public` `static` `void` `main (String[] args)  ` `    ``{ ` `        ``String str = ``"COZY"``; ` `        ``printPath(str); ` `    ``} ` `} ` ` `  `// Contributed by Pramod Kumar `

## Python3

 `# Python 3 program to print shortest possible ` `# path to type all characters of given string ` `# using a remote ` ` `  `# Function to print shortest possible path  ` `# to type all characters of given string  ` `# using a remote ` `def` `printPath(``str``): ` `    ``i ``=` `0` `     `  `    ``# start from character 'A' present  ` `    ``# at position (0, 0) ` `    ``curX ``=` `0` `    ``curY ``=` `0` `    ``while` `(i < ``len``(``str``)): ` `         `  `        ``# find cordinates of next character ` `        ``nextX ``=` `int``((``ord``(``str``[i]) ``-` `ord``(``'A'``)) ``/` `5``) ` `        ``nextY ``=` `(``ord``(``str``[i]) ``-` `ord``(``'B'``) ``+` `1``) ``%` `5` ` `  `        ``# Move Up if destination is above ` `        ``while` `(curX > nextX): ` `            ``print``(``"Move Up"``) ` `            ``curX ``-``=` `1` ` `  `        ``# Move Left if destination is to the left ` `        ``while` `(curY > nextY): ` `            ``print``(``"Move Left"``) ` `            ``curY ``-``=` `1` ` `  `        ``# Move down if destination is below ` `        ``while` `(curX < nextX): ` `            ``print``(``"Move Down"``) ` `            ``curX ``+``=` `1` ` `  `        ``# Move Right if destination is to the right ` `        ``while` `(curY < nextY): ` `            ``print``(``"Move Right"``) ` `            ``curY ``+``=` `1` ` `  `        ``# At this point, destination is reached ` `        ``print``(``"Press OK"``) ` `        ``i ``+``=` `1` ` `  `# Driver code ` `if` `__name__ ``=``=` `'__main__'``: ` `    ``str` `=` `"COZY"` ` `  `    ``printPath(``str``) ` ` `  `# This code is contributed by ` `# Sanjit_Prasad `

## C#

 `// C# program to print shortest ` `// possible path to type all  ` `// characters of given string ` `// using a remote ` `using` `System; ` ` `  `class` `GFG { ` `     `  `    ``// Function to print shortest ` `    ``// possible path to type all  ` `    ``// characters of given string ` `    ``// using a remote ` `    ``static` `void` `printPath(String str) ` `    ``{ ` `        ``int` `i = 0; ` `         `  `        ``// start from character 'A'  ` `        ``// present at position (0, 0) ` `        ``int` `curX = 0, curY = 0; ` `        ``while` `(i < str.Length) ` `        ``{ ` `             `  `            ``// find cordinates of  ` `            ``// next character ` `            ``int` `nextX = (str[i] - ``'A'``) / 5; ` `            ``int` `nextY = (str[i] - ``'B'` `+ 1) % 5; ` ` `  `            ``// Move Up if destination  ` `            ``// is above ` `            ``while` `(curX > nextX) ` `            ``{ ` `                ``Console.WriteLine(``"Move Up"``); ` `                ``curX--; ` `            ``} ` ` `  `            ``// Move Left if destination  ` `            ``// is to the left ` `            ``while` `(curY > nextY) ` `            ``{ ` `                ``Console.WriteLine(``"Move Left"``); ` `                ``curY--; ` `            ``} ` ` `  `            ``// Move down if destination ` `            ``// is below ` `            ``while` `(curX < nextX) ` `            ``{ ` `                ``Console.WriteLine(``"Move Down"``); ` `                ``curX++; ` `            ``} ` ` `  `            ``// Move Right if destination ` `            ``// is to the right ` `            ``while` `(curY < nextY) ` `            ``{ ` `                ``Console.WriteLine(``"Move Right"``); ` `                ``curY++; ` `            ``} ` ` `  `            ``// At this point, destination  ` `            ``// is reached ` `            ``Console.WriteLine(``"Press OK"``); ` `            ``i++; ` `        ``} ` `    ``} ` `     `  `    ``// Driver Code ` `    ``public` `static` `void` `Main ()  ` `    ``{ ` `        ``String str = ``"COZY"``; ` `        ``printPath(str); ` `    ``} ` `} ` ` `  `// This Code is contributed by nitin mittal. `

## PHP

 ` ``\$nextX``) ` `        ``{ ` `            ``echo` `"Move Up\n"``; ` `            ``\$curX``--; ` `        ``} ` ` `  `        ``// Move Left if destination is to the left ` `        ``while` `(``\$curY` `> ``\$nextY``) ` `        ``{ ` `            ``echo` `"Move Left\n"``; ` `            ``\$curY``--; ` `        ``} ` ` `  `        ``// Move down if destination is below ` `        ``while` `(``\$curX` `< ``\$nextX``) ` `        ``{ ` `            ``echo` `"Move Down\n"``; ` `            ``\$curX``++; ` `        ``} ` ` `  `        ``// Move Right if destination is to the right ` `        ``while` `(``\$curY` `< ``\$nextY``) ` `        ``{ ` `            ``echo` `"Move Right\n"``; ` `            ``\$curY``++; ` `        ``} ` ` `  `        ``// At this point, destination is reached ` `        ``echo` `"Press OK\n"``; ` `        ``\$i``++; ` `    ``} ` `} ` ` `  `// Driver code ` `    ``\$str` `= ``"COZY"``; ` ` `  `    ``printPath(``\$str``); ` ` `  ` `  `// This code is contributed by chandan_jnu ` `?> `

Output:

```Move Right
Move Right
Press OK
Move Down
Move Down
Move Right
Move Right
Press OK
Move Left
Move Left
Move Left
Move Left
Move Down
Move Down
Move Down
Press OK
Move Up
Move Right
Move Right
Move Right
Move Right
Press OK
```