A filehandle is a variable that is used to read and write to a file. This filehandle gets associated with the file.
In order to write to the file, it is opened in write mode as shown below:
open (FH, ‘>’, “filename.txt”);
If the file is existing then it truncates the old content of file with the new content. Otherwise a new file will be created and content will be added.
print() function is used to write content to a file.
Syntax: print filehandle string
Here, filehandle is associated to the file at the time of opening the file and string holds the content to be written to the file.
Before Writing to File:
Executing Code to Write:
Here is how the program works:
Step 1: Opening file Hello.txt in write mode.
Step 2: Getting the text from the standard input keyboard.
Step 3: Writing the string stored in ‘$a’ to the file pointed by filehandle ‘fh’
Step 4: Closing the file.
Copying Content from one file to another:
Before Code Execution:
Example below reads the content from the source file and writes it to destination file.
Updated Destination File:
Here is how the program works:-
Step 1: Opening 2 files Source.txt in read mode and Destination.txt in write mode.
Step 2: Reading the content from the FHR which is filehandle to read content while FHW is a filehandle to write content to file.
Step 3: Copying the content with the use of print function.
Step 4: Close the conn once reading file is done.
There are two ways in which Errors can be handled
- Throw an exception if file cannot be opened (Handling an error)
- Give a warning if file cannot be opened and continue running (Error reporting)
Throw an Exception (Using Die Function)
When filehandle could not be assigned a valid file pointer at that time die gets executed printing the message and kills the current program.
In the above code when File exists it simply gets executed with no errors but if file doesn’t exists then it generates an error and code terminates.
Give a warning (Using warn function)
When filehandle could not be assigned a valid file pointer it just prints warning message using warn function and keeps running.
When File exists:
When File doesn’t exists: