Perl | String Operators

Operators are the foundation of any programming language. Thus, the functionality of Perl programming language is incomplete without the use of operators. A user can define operators as symbols that help to perform specific mathematical and logical computations on operands. String are scalar variables and start with ($) sign in Perl. The String is defined by user within a single quote (‘) or double quote (“) . There are different types of string operators in Perl, as follows:

  • Concatenation Operator (.)
  • Repetition Operator (x)
  • Auto-increment Operator (++)

Concatenation Operator(.)

Perl strings are concatenated with a Dot(.) symbol. The Dot(.) sign is used instead of (+) sign in Perl. This operator takes two scalars variables as operands and combines them in a single scalar variable. Both scalars i.e left and right will convert into a single string.

Example:

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# Perl program to demonstrate the
# Concatenation Operator(.) in String
  
#!/usr/bin/perl
  
# Input first string 
$first_string = "Geeks";
  
# Input second string 
$second_string = "forGeeks";
  
# Implement Concatination operator(.) 
$concat_string = $first_string.$second_string;
  
# displaying concatination string result
print "String After Concatenation = $concat_string\n";

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Output:

String After Concatenation = GeeksforGeeks

Repetition Operator (x)

The x operator accepts a string on its left-hand side and a number on its right-hand side. It will return the string on the left-hand side repeated as many times as the value on the right-hand side. The repetition depends on the user’s input number.

Syntax:

"String" x number_of_times 

Example:

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# Perl program to demonstrate the
# Repetition Operator (x) in String
  
#!/usr/bin/perl
  
# Input a string 
$string = "GeeksforGeeks "
  
# Repetation operator(x)
$str_result = $string x 5; 
  
# Display output
# print string 5 times 
print "$str_result";

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Output:

GeeksforGeeks GeeksforGeeks GeeksforGeeks GeeksforGeeks GeeksforGeeks 

Note: Possible cases while using the Repetition Operator (x) in String as follows:

  • $string xnumber : Gives Output
  • $string x number : Gives Output
  • $stringxnumber : Gives Error(where no space between string and x)
  • $stringx number : Gives Error(where no space between string and x)

Important Point to Remember: Both the Concatenation and Repetition operator can be used with assignment(=) operator as follows:

  • Concatenation Assignment Operator (.=)
  • Repetition Assignment Operator (x=)

Example:

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# Perl program to demonstrate the
# Concatenation and Repetition 
# Assignment Operator in String
   
#!/usr/bin/perl
   
# Input first string 
$string1 = "Geeks"
  
# Input second string 
$string2 = "forgeeks";  
  
$combine = $string1;   
  
# combine two string function (.=)
$combine .= $string2;  
  
# Display result
print $combine;
  
$str_result = "Sudo_Placements";
  
# Repetation operator(x)
$str_result x= 5; 
  
# Display output
# print string 5 times
print "\n$str_result";

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Output:

Geeksforgeeks
Sudo_PlacementsSudo_PlacementsSudo_PlacementsSudo_PlacementsSudo_Placements

Auto-increment Operator (++)

This operator can also apply to strings. It is a unary operator thats why it will only take a single operand as string. The last character of the operand(i.e string) will increment by one using the ASCII values of characters. The important point to remember about ++ operator that if the string ends with ‘z or”Z’ then the result of ++ operator will be ‘a’ or ‘A’ respectively but the letter to the left of it will also increment by one as well.

Example:

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# Perl program to demonstrate 
# Auto-increment Operator (++)
   
#!/usr/bin/perl
   
# Input  string 
$st = "AYY"
  
$st++;
  
# Display output
print "After ++ : $st";
  
# Once again  
$st++;
  
# Display output
print "\nAgain After ++ : $st";

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Output:

After ++ : AYZ
Again After ++ : AZA


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